|Print Page | Close Window|
|IAG Final Results 2018|
RNS Number : 3527R
Full year results announcement
• Fourth quarter operating profit
• Net foreign exchange operating profit impact for the quarter adverse
• Passenger unit revenue for the quarter up 1.6 per cent, up 1.5 per cent at constant currency
• Non-fuel unit costs before exceptional items for the quarter up 0.9 per cent, up 0.5 per cent at constant currency
• Fuel unit costs for the quarter up 9.5 per cent, up 9.2 per cent at constant currency
• Operating profit before exceptional items for the year to
• Net foreign exchange impact for the year adverse
• Passenger unit revenue for the year up 0.1 per cent and up 2.4 per cent at constant currency
• Non-fuel unit costs for the year before exceptional items down 2.2 per cent and down 0.8 per cent at constant currency
• Fuel unit costs for the year up 8.0 per cent, up 12.5 per cent at constant currency
• Cash of
• Profit after tax before exceptional items
• Final proposed dividend of 16.5 € cents per share
• Proposed special dividend of 35.0 € cents per share, approximately
Definitions included in Alternative performance measures section.
1 Restated for new accounting standards IFRS 15 'Revenue from contracts with customers' and IFRS 9 'Financial instruments'; refer to note 33.
"In 2018, we're reporting an operating profit of
"At constant currency, passenger unit revenue improved by 2.4 per cent while non-fuel unit costs decreased by 0.8 per cent on capacity growth of 6.1 per cent.
"In quarter 4, we reported an operating profit of
"In 2018, we completed our second share buyback which was worth
At current fuel prices and exchange rates,
This announcement contains inside information and is disclosed in accordance with the Company's obligations under the Market Abuse Regulation (EU) No 596/2014.
Certain statements included in this report are forward-looking. These statements can be identified by the fact that they do not relate only to historical or current facts. By their nature, they involve risk and uncertainties because they relate to events and depend on circumstances that will occur in the future. Actual results could differ materially from those expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements.
Forward-looking statements often use words such as "expects", "may", "will", "could", "should", "intends", "plans", "predicts", "envisages" or "anticipates" or other words of similar meaning. They include, without limitation, any and all projections relating to the results of operations and financial conditions of
There are several factors that could cause actual results to differ from those expressed or implied in forward-looking statements, and it is not reasonably possible to itemise each of them. Further information on the primary risks of the business and the Group's risk management process is set out in the 'Risk management and principal risk factors' section in the Annual Report and Accounts 2017; these documents are available on www.iagshares.com. All forward-looking statements made on or after the date of this document and attributable to
Waterside (HAA2), PO Box 365, Harmondsworth,
Tel: +44 (0)208 564 2900
Consolidated Income Statement
1 Restated for new accounting standards IFRS 15 'Revenue from contracts with customers' and IFRS 9 'Financial instruments'; refer to note 33.
2 Financial ratios are before exceptional items.
Consolidated Income Statement
1 Restated for new accounting standards IFRS 15 'Revenue from contracts with customers' and IFRS 9 'Financial instruments'; refer to note 33.
2 Financial ratios are before exceptional items.
IATA market growths
The air traffic industry had another strong year. Economic growth is keeping traffic ahead of the industry's 6.1 per cent capacity increase with a slight net gain of 0.3 pts in passenger load factor.
In 2018, airline capacity growth in
Airline capacity growth in the
IATA market growths
Source: IATA Air Passenger Market Analysis
The increase partially reflects new longhaul routes at
In the Domestic market, the Group's passenger unit revenues were up across all airlines. The Group's domestic performance improved throughout the year and benefited from the Spanish government subsidy to residents in the Balearic and Canaries Islands.
The Group's European capacity increased year on year. LEVEL
In 2018, the Group's European markets continued to perform strongly with increases at
In 2018, US GDP grew 2.9 per cent which was ahead of last year and forecast. Growth accelerated over the year benefiting from tax rate reductions and lower unemployment supporting consumption. The airline industry's passenger capacity grew 4.7 per cent while
Latin America GDP grew in line with last year but significantly below forecasts.
AMESA capacity increased slightly in 2018 from
On a reported basis, passenger revenue for the Group rose 6.2 per cent versus the prior year, with 2.4 points of adverse currency, while capacity was increased 6.1 per cent. At constant currency ('ccy'), passenger unit revenue (passenger revenue per ASK) increased 2.4 per cent from higher yields (passenger revenue/revenue passenger kilometre) up 1.5 per cent and a 0.7 point rise in passenger load factor. At the airline level, passenger unit revenue at ccy increased versus last year at each of the Group's airlines. On a quarterly basis, the Group's passenger unit revenue at ccy was also positive in every quarter although at a slower pace as the year progressed.
The Group carried almost 113 million passengers an increase of 7.7 per cent from 2017, with passenger load factor improvement of 0.7 points for the Group and at four of the five airlines. Since
The market in 2018 saw a strong start, but growth then slowed markedly as the year progressed. Cargo revenue for the period increased by 3.6 per cent, excluding currency 7.2 per cent. Volume measured in tonne kilometres (CTK) decreased by 0.9 per cent on a capacity increase of 3.8 per cent. Yield improved by 8.1 per cent at constant currency. Strategic focus continued to be on premium products, investing for growth and continuing to modernise the business. This included the investment in a new Constant Climate Centre in
Other revenue rose 15.1 per cent, 18.3 per cent at constant currency from increases in:
• BA Holidays bookings,
• Rental revenues, primarily at
Total revenue for the Group rose 6.7 per cent with increases in passenger, cargo and other revenue. At ccy, total revenue was up 9.2 per cent, higher than the Group's ASK growth.
Expenditure before exceptional items
Employee costs increased 1.5 per cent before exceptional items for the year. At constant currency, employee unit costs improved 3.3 per cent with pay increases primarily linked to RPI, offset by efficiency and restructuring initiatives across the Group.
Overall the average number of employees rose by 2.1 per cent for the Group bringing our average workforce to 64,734 and productivity increased 3.9 per cent with improvements at
Fuel, oil and emissions costs
Fuel, oil and emissions costs rose by 14.6 per cent in 2018 primarily from higher average fuel prices net of hedging, partially offset by a weaker USD and from management efficiencies. Average fuel price rose from approximately
Fuel, oil and emissions costs
Total supplier costs for the year increased 5.0 per cent with 1.5 points of positive currency impacts. At ccy and on a unit basis, supplier costs rose 0.4 per cent. In 2018, the Group's non-ASK related businesses, such as MRO, BA Holidays and
By supplier cost category:
Handling, catering and other operating costs rose 8.0 per cent, excluding currency up 10.1 per cent. The year on year comparison is impacted by a
Landing fees and en-route charges were higher by 1.5 per cent, excluding currency up 3.0 per cent. Costs rose primarily from higher activity, with flying hours up 5.1 per cent and sectors flown up 5.2 per cent. Price increases were broadly net neutral in 2018.
Engineering and other aircraft costs increased 3.1 per cent, excluding currency up 7.1 per cent. Increases were driven by additional third party maintenance activity at
Property, IT and other costs were up 0.3 per cent, excluding currency up 1.9 per cent. The increase reflects higher IT and professional costs and inflation on rent and rates.
Selling costs increased 6.5 per cent, excluding currency up 8.2 per cent. Selling costs rose from higher volumes, point of sale mix and changes in the Group's distribution model. The Group launched a new distribution model in
The Group's ownership costs were up 3.5 per cent, excluding currency up 5.7 per cent. The increase reflects higher depreciation charges for the Boeing 747 fleet from lower expected residual values and from new owned aircraft (4 Boeing 787s, 2 Airbus A350s, 3 Airbus A330s, 11 Airbus A320 family). The Group has retired its fully depreciated Boeing 767s. Operating lease costs rose mainly due to incremental wet lease costs incurred to operate the Monarch slots at
Number of fleet
Non-fuel unit costs
At constant currency, total non-fuel unit costs decreased 0.8 per cent. Adjusted by the 'Other revenue' (MRO, BA Holidays,
Exchange impact before exceptional items
Exchange rate movements are calculated by retranslating current year results at prior year exchange rates. The reported revenues and expenditures are impacted by translation currency from converting results from currencies other than euro to the Group's reporting currency of euro, primarily
The Group hedges its economic exposure from transacting in foreign currencies. The Group does not hedge the translation impact of reporting in euros.
Operating profit before exceptional items
In summary, the Group's operating profit before exceptional items for the year was €3,230 million, a €280 million improvement from last year. The Group's adjusted operating margin also improved 0.2 points to 14.4 per cent. These results reflect a strong revenue performance from a better macro-economic environment with improvements in our main strategic markets. Management continued to focus on customer proposition, operational resilience and delivery of cost savings. This was partially offset by higher costs from ATC disruption, while our non‑fuel unit cost trend keeps improving from structural agreements on pensions and productivity. This performance reflects the Group's drive towards achieving a competitive cost base with improved productivity and management initiatives, aligned with an improved focus in customer satisfaction, brand value and resilience of our operational model.
Financial performance by Brand
British Airways operating profit was £1,952 million, excluding exceptional items, up £203 million over the prior year on a capacity increase of 2.5 per cent.
Passenger unit revenues rose for the year from higher passenger load factors and yields. Yields improved with strong business sector performance.
British Airways' non-fuel unit costs improved during the year; savings were made in several areas including the head office function, engineering through outsourcing and property rationalisation.
Overall, British Airways' adjusted operating margin improved 0.8 points to 15.6 per cent.
Despite the significant increase in capacity,
Financial performance by Brand
Vueling's operating profit was €200 million an increase of €12 million despite facing significant operational disruption from ATC regulations and strikes. Its adjusted operating margin of 11.8 per cent, was 1.0 points down versus last year.
Vueling developed its network strategy throughout 2018 and has strengthened its position in key markets. Demand in these markets remained strong, passenger unit revenues, passenger load factors and yields improved versus last year.
Vueling's non-fuel unit costs increased significantly primarily from ATC disruption. Vueling's NEXT programme continued to target operational improvements and cost saving initiatives to address the challenging ATC environment, however operating margin suffered.
On the cost side, non-fuel unit costs reduced. Employee unit costs and productivity improved through efficiency initiatives as part of
For a full list of exceptional items, refer to note 4 of the Financial statements. Below is a summary of the significant exceptional items recorded.
During the year, the Group recognised an exceptional net operating credit of €448 million reflecting:
€678 million net pension credit following the amendments to British Airways' NAPS and BARP pension plans noted previously, reducing the defined benefit liability offset by the related cash costs
€136 million restructuring costs related to British Airways' transformation plan aimed to develop a more efficient and cost effective structure, and
€94 million charge in employee costs to equalise the effects of Guaranteed Minimum Pensions at British Airways.
In 2017, the Group recognised an exceptional charge of €288 million related to restructuring costs at British Airways and
Non-operating costs and taxation
Net non-operating costs after exceptional items were €191 million, up from €181 million last year. In 2018, the Group recognised a net financing pension credit relating to defined benefit schemes compared to a charge in 2017. Closure of the British Airways NAPS to future accrual resulted in an accounting surplus and a net financing credit. This €55 million improvement was offset by a €57 million swing in net foreign exchange on the retranslation of monetary non-current assets and liabilities.
The vast majority of the Group's activities are taxed in the countries of effective management of the main operations -
The Group continues to offset prior year tax losses and other tax assets against its current year taxable profit. In 2018 the Group paid corporation taxes of €343 million (2017: €237 million).
Profit after tax and Earnings per share (EPS)
Profit after tax before exceptional items was €2,481 million, up 11.2 per cent. The increase reflects a strong operating profit performance with higher unit revenues and lower non-fuel unit costs more than offsetting the significant rise in fuel unit costs. Fully diluted earnings per share before exceptional items is one of our key performance indicators and increased by 15.1 per cent also benefitting from the positive impact of the share buyback programme.
Profit after tax and exceptional items was €2,897 million (2017: €2,009 million), up 44.2 per cent.
The Board is proposing a final dividend to shareholders of 16.5 euro cents per share, which brings the full year dividend to 31 euro cents per share. Given the Group's strong cash position the Board is also proposing a special dividend of 35 euro cents per share, returning approximately €700 million to shareholders. Subject to shareholder approval at the Annual General Meeting, the final and special dividends will be paid, on July 8, 2019 to shareholders on the register on July 5, 2019.
Dividend policy statement
In determining the level of dividend in any year, the Board considers several factors, including:
• Earnings of the Group;
• On-going cash requirements and prospects of the Group and its operating companies;
• Levels of distributable reserves by operating company and efficiency of upstreaming options;
• Dividend coverage; and
• Its intention to distribute regular returns to its shareholders in the medium and long-term.
The Company received distributions from each of the four main airlines in 2018, although due to accumulated losses in certain companies they were not all recorded as distributable income. Distributions may trigger additional pension contributions if higher than pre-agreed thresholds, see note 30 of the Financial statements.
Notwithstanding these factors, the Company's distributable reserves position was strong, with €5.7 billion available at December 31, 2018 (2017: €6.1 billion).
Liquidity and capital risk management
The Group monitors capital using adjusted net debt to EBITDAR and liquidity. In 2018, the Group's adjusted net debt to EBITDAR increased slightly to 1.6 from 1.5 in 2017, although well within an acceptable range. EBITDAR improved and adjusted net debt increased. Adjusted net debt rose by €596 million to €8,355 million reflecting a lower cash position from the repayment of perpetual securities and slightly higher long-term borrowings from an increase in debt for fleet. EBITDAR rose €352 million versus last year reflecting the Group's profitable growth as the EBITDAR margin increased 0.1 pts with ASKs up 6.1 per cent.
The Group's equity free cash flow (EqFCF) was €1,801 million in 2018, lower than last year by €819 million and lower than our average long-term planning goals, impacted by the timing of CAPEX. EBITDA generation was strong at €4,484 million while net CAPEX was high at €2,228 million.
In 2018, the Group's net CAPEX included delivery of thirty-two new aircraft, five Boeing 787s, two Airbus A350s, four Airbus A330s and 21 Airbus from the A320 family. This capital expenditure has been partially offset by €574 million of proceeds from the sale and leaseback of thirteen new aircraft (ten Airbus A320 family, one Boeing 787 and two Airbus A330). In 2017, the Group took delivery of 10 new aircraft, partially offset by €287 million of proceeds from the sale and leaseback of seven new aircraft.
During the year, British Airways secured a sale and leaseback by way of a $609 million EETC bond issue to fund aircraft deliveries. The bonds were combined with Japanese Operating Leases with Call Options ("JOLCO") of $259 million. The total sum raised was $868 million. The transaction includes Class AA and Class A Certificates with an underlying collateral pool consisting of 11 aircraft.
Movements in Working capital and other non-cash generated €270 million in free cash flow (2017: €623 million) primarily from the Group's growth with higher sales in advance of carriage and impacted by the timing of prepayments.
Pensions and restructuring reflect payments made to the British Airways APS and NAPS pension plan schemes and restructuring payments for British Airways' and
In 2018, the cash Dividend paid reflects the 2017 final dividend and the 2018 interim dividend.
During the year
Taking these factors into consideration, the Group's cash outflow for the year was €341 million and after net foreign exchange differences, the decrease in cash net of exchange was €402 million. Each operating company holds adequate levels of cash with balances exceeding 20 per cent of revenues, sufficient to meet obligations as they fall due.
Net debt and adjusted net debt
The Group's net debt position increased by €580 million reflecting a reduction in cash, adverse exchange and a net neutral impact from regular financing with repayments during the year offsetting new borrowings.
Off balance sheet arrangements and capital commitments
The Group has entered into commercial leases on certain property and equipment but primarily for aircraft. Contracts range in duration for up to 13 years for aircraft with total payments of €8,664 million (2017: €7,642 million); see note 23 for further details on the timing. The Group's adjusted net debt metric includes an estimation for the debt related to the aircraft operating leases ('capitalised aircraft lease costs') by taking the current year's aircraft operating lease cost multiplied by 8.
Capital expenditure authorised and contracted for amounted to €10,831 million (2017: €12,137 million) for the Group. Most of this is in US dollars and includes commitments until 2023 for 92 aircraft from the Airbus A320 family, 12 Boeing 787s, 4 Boeing 777s, 41 Airbus A350s, and 4 Airbus A330s.
• Win the customer through service and value across our global network;
• Deliver higher returns to our shareholders through leveraging cost and revenue opportunities across the Group;
• Attract and develop the best people in the industry;
• Provide a platform for quality international airlines, leaders in their markets, to participate in consolidation; and
• Retain the distinct cultures and brands of the individual airlines.
By accomplishing our mission,
• Strengthening a portfolio of world-class brands and operations
• Growing global leadership positions
• Enhancing the common integrated platform
Principal risks and uncertainties
During the year we have continued to embed our risk framework, which includes processes to identify, assess and manage risks. The principal risks and uncertainties affecting us, detailed on pages 29 to 34 of the Annual Report and Accounts 2017, remain relevant. In general, the Group's strategic risk was stable during the year. The Group continued to evaluate and prepare for the potential changes following the
Overall, the Group maintains flexibility in its fleet plans with the ability to defer, to exercise options and to negotiate different renewal terms.
Consolidated income statement
Consolidated statement of other comprehensive income
Items in the consolidated Statement of other comprehensive income above are disclosed net of tax.
Consolidated balance sheet
Consolidated cash flow statement
2 Includes transitional arrangement cash costs associated with changes to the British Airways pension schemes; refer to note 4.
Consolidated statement of changes in equity
For the year to December 31, 2018
Consolidated statement of changes in equity
For the year to December 31, 2017
NOTES TO THE consolidated financial statements
For the year to December 31, 2018
1 Background and general information
2 Significant accounting policies
Basis of preparation
The consolidated financial statements of the Group have been prepared in accordance with the International Financial Reporting Standards as endorsed by the
The Group's financial statements for the year to December 31, 2018 were authorised for issue, and approved by the Board of Directors on February 27, 2019.
The Directors have considered the business activities, the Group's principal risks and uncertainties, and the Group's financial position, including cash flows, liquidity position and available committed facilities. The Directors consider that the Group has adequate resources to remain in operation for the foreseeable future and have therefore continued to adopt the going concern basis in preparing the financial statements.
The Group financial statements include the financial statements of the Company and its subsidiaries, each made up to December 31, together with the attributable share of results and reserves of associates and joint ventures, adjusted where appropriate to conform to the Group's accounting policies.
Subsidiaries are consolidated from the date of their acquisition, which is the date on which the Group obtains control and continue to be consolidated until the date that such control ceases. Control exists when the Group is exposed to, or has rights to, variable returns from its involvement with the entity and has the ability to affect those returns through its power over the entity.
The Group applies the acquisition method to account for business combinations. The consideration paid is the fair value of the assets transferred, the liabilities incurred and the equity interests issued by the Group. Identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed in a business combination are measured initially at their fair values at the acquisition date. Non-controlling interests represent the portion of profit or loss and net assets in subsidiaries that are not held by the Group and are presented separately within equity in the consolidated Balance sheet. Acquisition-related costs are expensed as incurred.
If the business combination is achieved in stages, the acquisition date fair value of the acquirer's previously held equity interest in the acquiree is remeasured to fair value at the acquisition date through the Income statement.
All intra-group account balances, including intra-group profits, are eliminated in preparing the consolidated financial statements.
Operating segments are reported in a manner consistent with how resource allocation decisions are made by the chief operating decision-maker. The chief operating decision-maker, who is responsible for resource allocation and assessing performance of the operating segments, has been identified as the
Foreign currency translation
a Functional and presentation currency
Items included in the financial statements of each of the Group's entities are measured using the functional currency, being the currency of the primary economic environment in which the entity operates. In particular, British Airways and
b Transactions and balances
Transactions in foreign currencies are initially recorded in the functional currency using the rate of exchange prevailing on the date of the transaction. Monetary foreign currency balances are translated into the functional currency at the rates ruling at the balance sheet date. Foreign exchange gains and losses resulting from the settlement of such transactions and from the translation at balance sheet exchange rates of monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are recognised in the Income statement, except where hedge accounting is applied. Foreign exchange gains and losses arising on the retranslation of monetary assets and liabilities classified as non-current on the Balance sheet are recognised within 'Net currency retranslation (charges)/credits' in the Income statement. All other gains and losses arising on the retranslation of monetary assets and liabilities are recognised in operating profit.
c Group companies
The net assets of foreign operations are translated into euros at the rate of exchange ruling at the balance sheet date. Profits and losses of such operations are translated into euros at average rates of exchange during the year. The resulting exchange differences are taken directly to a separate component of equity (Currency translation reserve) until all or part of the interest is sold, when the relevant portion of the cumulative exchange difference is recognised in the Income statement.
Property, plant and equipment
Property, plant and equipment is held at cost. The Group has a policy of not revaluing property, plant and equipment. Depreciation is calculated to write off the cost less the estimated residual value on a straight-line basis, over the economic life of the asset. Residual values, where applicable, are reviewed annually against prevailing market values for equivalently aged assets and depreciation rates adjusted accordingly on a prospective basis.
a Capitalisation of interest on progress payments
Interest attributed to progress payments made on account of aircraft and other qualifying assets under construction are capitalised and added to the cost of the asset concerned. All other borrowing costs are recognised in the Income statement in the year in which they are incurred.
All aircraft are stated at the fair value of the consideration given after taking account of manufacturers' credits. Fleet assets owned or held on finance leases are disaggregated into separate components and depreciated at rates calculated to write down the cost of each component to the estimated residual value at the end of their planned operational lives (which is the shorter of their useful life or lease term) on a straight-line basis. Depreciation rates are specific to aircraft type, based on the Group's fleet plans, within overall parameters of 23 years and 5 per cent residual value for shorthaul aircraft and 25 years and 5 per cent residual value for longhaul aircraft.
Cabin interior modifications, including those required for brand changes and relaunches, are depreciated over the lower of five years and the remaining economic life of the aircraft.
Aircraft and engine spares acquired on the introduction or expansion of a fleet, as well as rotable spares purchased separately, are carried as property, plant and equipment and generally depreciated in line with the fleet to which they relate.
Major overhaul expenditure, including replacement spares and labour costs, is capitalised and amortised over the average expected life between major overhauls. All other replacement spares and other costs relating to maintenance of fleet assets (including maintenance provided under 'pay-as-you-go' contracts) are charged to the Income statement on consumption or as incurred respectively.
c Other property, plant and equipment
Provision is made for the depreciation of all property, plant and equipment. Property, with the exception of freehold land, is depreciated over its expected useful life over periods not exceeding 50 years, or in the case of leasehold properties, over the duration of the lease if shorter, on a straight-line basis. Equipment is depreciated over periods ranging from 4 to 20 years.
d Leased assets
Where assets are financed through finance leases, under which substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership are transferred to the Group, the assets are treated as if they had been purchased outright. The amount included in the cost of property, plant and equipment represents the aggregate of the capital elements payable during the lease term. The corresponding obligation, reduced by the appropriate proportion of lease payments made, is included in borrowings.
The amount included in the cost of property, plant and equipment is depreciated on the basis described in the preceding paragraphs on fleet and the interest element of lease payments made is included as an interest expense in the Income statement.
Total minimum payments, measured at inception, under all other lease arrangements, known as operating leases, are charged to the Income statement in equal annual amounts over the period of the lease. In respect of aircraft, certain operating lease arrangements allow the Group to terminate the leases after a limited initial period, without further material financial obligations. In certain cases the Group is entitled to extend the initial lease period on predetermined terms; such leases are described as extendable operating leases.
In determining the appropriate lease classification, the substance of the transaction rather than the form is considered. Factors considered include but are not limited to the following: whether the lease transfers ownership of the asset to the lessee by the end of the lease term; the lessee has the option to purchase the asset at the price that is sufficiently lower than the fair value on exercise date; the lease term is for the major part of the economic life of the asset; and the present value of the minimum lease payments amounts to at least substantially all of the fair value of the leased asset.
For the purpose of assessing impairment, goodwill is grouped at the lowest levels for which there are separately identifiable cash flows (cash generating units).
Brands arising on the acquisition of subsidiaries are initially recognised at fair value at the acquisition date. Long established brands that are expected to be used indefinitely are not amortised but assessed annually for impairment.
c Customer loyalty programmes
Customer loyalty programmes arising on the acquisition of subsidiaries are initially recognised at fair value at the acquisition date. A customer loyalty programme with an expected useful life is amortised over the expected remaining useful life. Established customer loyalty programmes that are expected to be used indefinitely are not amortised but assessed annually for impairment.
d Landing rights
Landing rights acquired in a business combination are recognised at fair value at the acquisition date. Landing rights acquired from other airlines are capitalised at cost.
Capitalised landing rights based outside the EU are amortised on a straight-line basis over a period not exceeding 20 years. Capitalised landing rights based within the EU are not amortised, as regulations provide that these landing rights are perpetual.
e Contract based intangibles
Contract based intangibles acquired in a business combination are recognised initially at fair value at the acquisition date and amortised over the remaining life of the contract.
The cost to purchase or develop computer software that is separable from an item of related hardware is capitalised separately and amortised on a straight-line basis generally over a period not exceeding five years, with certain specific software developments amortised over a period of up to 10 years.
g Emissions allowances
Purchased emissions allowances are recognised at cost. Emissions allowances are not revalued or amortised but are tested for impairment whenever indicators exist that the carrying value may not be recoverable.
Impairment of non-financial assets
Assets that have an indefinite useful life are not subject to amortisation and are tested annually for impairment. Assets that are subject to amortisation are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount may not be recoverable. An impairment loss is recognised for the value by which the asset's carrying value exceeds its recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the higher of an asset's fair value less cost to sell and value-in-use. Non-financial assets other than goodwill that were subject to an impairment are reviewed for possible reversal of the impairment at each reporting date.
a Property, plant and equipment
The carrying value is reviewed for impairment when events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying value may not be recoverable and the cumulative impairment losses are shown as a reduction in the carrying value of property, plant and equipment.
b Intangible assets
Intangible assets are held at cost and are either amortised on a straight-line basis over their economic life, or they are deemed to have an indefinite economic life and are not amortised. Indefinite life intangible assets are tested annually for impairment or more frequently if events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying value may not be recoverable.
Investments in associates and joint ventures
An associate is an undertaking in which the Group has a long-term equity interest and over which it has the power to exercise significant influence. Where the Group cannot exercise control over an entity in which it has a shareholding greater than 51 per cent, the equity interest is treated as an associated undertaking.
A joint venture is a type of joint arrangement whereby the parties that have joint control of the arrangement have rights to the net assets of the joint venture. Joint control is the contractually agreed sharing of control of an arrangement, which exists only when decisions about the relevant activities require unanimous consent of the parties sharing control. The considerations made in determining significant influence or joint control are similar to those necessary to determine control over subsidiaries.
Investments in associates and joint ventures are accounted for using the equity method, and initially recognised at cost. The Group's interest in the net assets of associates and joint ventures is included in Investments accounted for using the equity method in the Balance sheet and its interest in their results is included in the Income statement, below operating result. The attributable results of those companies acquired or disposed of during the year are included for the periods of ownership.
a Other equity investments
Other equity investments are non-derivative financial assets including listed and unlisted investments, excluding interests in associates and joint ventures. On initial recognition, these equity investments are irrevocably designated as measured at fair value through Other comprehensive income. They are subsequently measured at fair value, with changes in fair value recognised in Other comprehensive income with no recycling of these gains and losses to the Income statement when the investment is sold. Dividends received on other equity investments are recognised in the Income statement.
The fair value of quoted investments is determined by reference to bid prices at the close of business on the balance sheet date. Where there is no active market, fair value is determined using valuation techniques.
b Other interest-bearing deposits
Other interest-bearing deposits, principally comprising funds held with banks and other financial institutions with contractual cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest, are carried at amortised cost using the effective interest method.
c Derivative financial instruments and hedging activities
Derivative financial instruments, comprising interest rate swap agreements, foreign exchange derivatives and fuel hedging derivatives (including options, swaps and futures) are initially recognised at fair value on the date a derivative contract is entered into and are subsequently remeasured at their fair value. They are classified as financial instruments through profit and loss. The method of recognising the resulting gain or loss arising from remeasurement depends on whether the derivative is designated as a hedging instrument, and if so, the nature of the item being hedged (as detailed below under cash flow hedges). The time value of options is excluded from the designated hedging instrument and accounted for as a cost of hedging. Movements in the time value of options are recognised in Other comprehensive income until the underlying transaction affects the income statement.
Exchange gains and losses on monetary investments are taken to the Income statement unless the item has been designated and is assessed as an effective hedging instrument. Exchange gains and losses on non-monetary investments are reflected in equity.
Long-term borrowings are recorded at amortised cost, including leases which contain interest rate swaps that are closely related to the underlying financing and as such are not accounted for as an embedded derivative.
d Cash flow hedges
Changes in the fair value of derivative financial instruments designated as a hedge of a highly probable expected future cash flow and assessed as effective are recorded in equity. Gains and losses on derivative instruments not designated as a cash flow hedge are reported in the Income statement. Gains and losses recorded in equity are reflected in the Income statement when either the hedged cash flow impacts the Income statement or the hedged item is no longer expected to occur.
Certain loan repayment instalments denominated in US dollars, euros, Japanese yen and Chinese yuan are designated as cash flow hedges of highly probable future foreign currency revenues. Exchange differences arising from the translation of these loan repayment instalments are recorded in equity and subsequently reflected in the Income statement when either the future revenue impacts income or its occurrence is no longer expected to occur.
e Convertible debt
Convertible bonds are classified as compound instruments, consisting of a liability and an equity component. At the date of issue, the fair value of the liability component is estimated using the prevailing market interest rate for similar non-convertible debt, and is subsequently recorded at an amortised cost basis using the effective interest method until extinguished on conversion or maturity of the bonds, and is recognised within Interest-bearing borrowings. The difference between the proceeds of issue of the convertible bond and the fair value assigned to the liability component, representing the embedded option to convert the liability into equity of the Group, is included in Equity portion of convertible bond in Other reserves and is not subsequently remeasured.
Issue costs are apportioned between the liability and equity components of the convertible bonds where appropriate based on their relative carrying values at the date of issue. The portion relating to the equity component is charged directly against equity.
The interest expense on the liability component is calculated by applying the effective interest rate for similar non-convertible debt to the liability component of the instrument. The difference between this value and the interest paid is added to the carrying amount of the liability.
f Impairment of financial assets
At each balance sheet date, the Group recognises provisions for expected credit losses on financial assets measured at amortised cost, based on 12-month or lifetime losses depending on whether there has been a significant increase in credit risk since initial recognition. The simplified approach, based on the calculation and recognition of lifetime expected credit losses, is applied to contracts that have a maturity of one year or less, including trade receivables.
Employee benefit plans
a Pension obligations
The Group has both defined benefit and defined contribution plans. A defined contribution plan is a pension plan under which the Group pays fixed contributions into a separate entity. The Group has no legal or constructive obligations to pay further contributions if the fund does not hold sufficient assets to pay all employees the benefits relating to employee service in the current and prior years.
Typically defined benefit plans define an amount of pension benefit that an employee will receive on retirement, usually dependent on one or more factors such as age, years of service and compensation.
The Group's net obligation in respect of defined benefit pension plans is calculated separately for each plan by estimating the amount of future benefit that employees have earned in return for their service in the current and prior years. The benefit is discounted to determine its present value, and the fair value of any plan assets are deducted. The discount rate is the yield at the balance sheet date on AA-rated corporate bonds of the appropriate currency that have durations approximating those of the Group's obligations. The calculation is performed by a qualified actuary using the projected unit credit method. When the net obligation calculation results in an asset for the Group, the recognition of an asset is limited to the present value of any future refunds from the plan or reductions in future contributions to the plan ('the asset ceiling'). The fair value of the plan assets is based on market price information and, in the case of quoted securities, is the published bid price. The fair value of insurance policies which exactly match the amount and timing of some or all benefits payable under the scheme are deemed to be the present value of the related obligations. Longevity swaps are measured at their fair value.
Current service costs are recognised within employee costs in the year in which they arise. Past service costs are recognised in the event of a plan amendment or curtailment, or when the Group recognises related restructuring costs or severance obligations. The net interest is calculated by applying the discount rate used to measure the defined benefit obligation at the beginning of the period to the net defined benefit liability or asset, taking into account any changes in the net defined benefit liability or asset during the period as a result of contributions and benefit payments. Net interest and other expenses related to the defined benefit plans are recognised in the Income statement. Remeasurements, comprising actuarial gains and losses, the effect of the asset ceiling (excluding interest) and the return on plan assets (excluding interest), are recognised immediately in Other comprehensive income. Remeasurements are not reclassified to the Income statement in subsequent periods.
b Severance obligations
Severance obligations are recognised when employment is terminated by the Group before the normal retirement date, or whenever an employee accepts voluntary redundancy in exchange for these benefits. The Group recognises a provision for severance payments when it is demonstrably committed to either terminating the employment of current employees according to a detailed formal plan without realistic possibility of withdrawal, or providing severance payments as a result of an offer made to encourage voluntary redundancy.
Other employee benefits are recognised when there is deemed to be a present obligation.
Current income tax assets and liabilities are measured at the amount expected to be recovered from or paid to the taxation authorities, based on tax rates and laws that are enacted or substantively enacted at the balance sheet date.
Deferred income tax is recognised on all temporary differences arising between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their carrying amounts in the financial statements, with the following exceptions:
• where the temporary difference arises from the initial recognition of goodwill or of an asset or liability in a transaction that is not a business combination that at the time of the transaction affects neither accounting nor taxable profit or loss;
• in respect of taxable temporary differences associated with investments in subsidiaries or associates, where the timing of the reversal of the temporary differences can be controlled and it is probable that the temporary differences will not reverse in the foreseeable future; and
• deferred income tax assets are recognised only to the extent that it is probable that taxable profit will be available against which the deductible temporary differences, carried forward tax credits or tax losses can be utilised.
Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are measured on an undiscounted basis at the tax rates that are expected to apply when the related asset is realised or liability is settled, based on tax rates and laws enacted or substantively enacted at the balance sheet date.
Income tax is charged or credited directly to equity if it relates to items that are credited or charged to equity. Otherwise income tax is recognised in the Income statement.
Inventories are valued at the lower of cost and net realisable value. Such cost is determined by the weighted average cost method. Inventories include mainly aircraft spare parts, repairable aircraft engine parts and fuel.
Cash and cash equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents include cash in hand and deposits with any qualifying financial institution repayable on demand or maturing within three months of the date of acquisition and which are subject to an insignificant risk of change in value.
The Group operates a number of equity-settled, share-based payment plans, under which the Group awards equity instruments of the Group for services rendered by employees. The fair value of the share-based payment plans is measured at the date of grant using a valuation model provided by external specialists. The resulting cost, as adjusted for the expected and actual level of vesting of the plan, is charged to the Income statement over the period in which the options vest. At each balance sheet date before vesting, the cumulative expense is calculated, representing the extent to which the vesting period has expired and management's best estimate of the achievement or otherwise of non-market conditions, and accordingly the number of equity instruments that will ultimately vest. The movement in the cumulative expense since the previous balance sheet date is recognised in the Income statement with a corresponding entry in equity.
Provisions are made when an obligation exists for a present liability in respect of a past event and where the amount of the obligation can be reliably estimated.
Employee leaving indemnities and other employee provisions are recorded for flight crew who, meeting certain conditions, have the option of being placed on reserve or of taking early retirement. The Group is obligated to remunerate these employees until they reach the statutory retirement age. The calculation is performed by independent actuaries using the projected unit credit method.
Other employee related provisions are recognised for direct expenditures of business reorganisation such as severance payments (restructuring provisions) where plans are sufficiently detailed and well advanced, and where appropriate communication to those affected has been undertaken at the balance sheet date.
If the effect is material, expected future cash flows are discounted using a rate that reflects, where appropriate, the risks specific to the provision. Where discounting is used, the increase in the provision due to unwinding the discount is recognised as a finance cost.
The Group's revenue primarily derives from transportation services for both passengers and cargo. Revenue is recognised when the transportation service has been provided. Passenger tickets are generally paid for in advance of transportation and are recognised, net of discounts, as deferred revenue on ticket sales in current liabilities until the customer has flown. Unused tickets are recognised as revenue after the contracted date of departure using estimates regarding the timing of recognition based on the terms and conditions of the ticket and statistical analysis of historical trends.
The Group considers whether it is an agent or a principal in relation to transportation services by considering whether it has a performance obligation to provide services to the customer or whether the obligation is to arrange for the services to be provided by a third party.
Other revenue including maintenance; handling; hotel and holiday and commissions is recognised as the related performance obligation is satisfied (over time) using an appropriate methodology which reflects the activity that has been undertaken to satisfy the related obligation.
Customer loyalty programmes
The Group's main loyalty programmes are Executive Club, Iberia Plus,
The Group has identified several performance obligations associated with the sale of
The Group estimates the stand-alone selling price of the brand and marketing performance obligations by reference to the amount that a third party would be prepared to pay in an arm's length transaction for access to comparable brands for the period over which they have access. The stand-alone selling price of
Exceptional items are those that in management's view need to be separately disclosed by virtue of their size or incidence. The exceptional items recorded in the Income statement include items such as significant restructuring; the impact of business combination transactions that do not contribute to the ongoing results of the Group; and the impact of the sale, disposal or impairment of an investment in a business.
Business combination transactions include cash items such as the costs incurred to effect the transaction and non-cash items such as accounting gains or losses recognised through the Income statement, such as bargain purchase gains and step acquisition losses.
Critical accounting judgements, estimates and assumptions
The preparation of financial statements requires management to make judgements, estimates and assumptions that affect the application of policies and reported amounts of assets and liabilities, income and expenses. These judgements, estimates and associated assumptions are based on historical experience and various other factors believed to be reasonable under the circumstances. Actual results in the future may differ from judgements and estimates upon which financial information has been prepared. These underlying assumptions are reviewed on an ongoing basis. Revisions to accounting estimates are recognised prospectively.
The estimates and assumptions that have a significant risk of causing a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities within the next financial year are as follows.
a Employee benefit obligations, employee leaving indemnities, other employee related restructuring provisions
At December 31, 2018 the Group recognised €1,129 million in respect of employee benefit assets (2017: €1,023 million) and €289 million in respect of employee benefit obligations (2017: €792 million). Further information on employee benefit obligations is disclosed in note 30.
The cost of employee benefit obligations, employee leaving indemnities and other employee related provisions is determined using actuarial valuations. Actuarial valuations involve making assumptions about discount rates, expected rates of return on assets, future salary increases, mortality rates and future pension increases. Due to the long-term nature of these schemes, such assumptions are subject to significant uncertainty. The assumptions relating to these schemes are disclosed in notes 24 and 30. The Group determines the assumptions to be adopted in discussion with qualified actuaries. In respect of future pension increases in the Airways Pension Scheme, on July 5, 2018 the Court of Appeal released its judgement, upholding British Airways' appeal, concluding the Trustee did not have the power to introduce a discretionary increase rule. Further information on these proceedings is disclosed in note 31. The sensitivity to changes in pension increase assumptions is disclosed in note 30.
On October 26, 2018 the High Court of Justice of
Whilst the Lloyds judgement has brought some clarity to the issue, there remains some uncertainty over how the calculation of the obligation for Guaranteed Minimum Pension (GMP) equalisation should be performed. The
Restructuring provisions are estimates of future obligations. The Group exercises judgement in determining the expected direct expenditures of reorganisation based on plans which are sufficiently detailed and advanced.
b Revenue recognition
At December 31, 2018 the Group recognised €4,835 million in respect of deferred revenue on ticket sales (2017: €4,742 million) of which €1,769 million (2017: €1,752 million) related to customer loyalty programmes.
Passenger revenue is recognised when the transportation is provided. At the time of transportation, revenue is also recognised in respect of tickets that are not expected to be used ('unused tickets'). Revenue associated with unused tickets is estimated based on the terms and conditions of the tickets and historical trends.
Revenue associated with the issuance of points under customer loyalty programmes is based on the relative stand-alone selling prices of the related performance obligations (brand, marketing and points), determined using estimation techniques. The transaction price of brand and marketing services is determined using specific brand valuation methodologies. The transaction price of the points is based on the value of the awards for which the points can be redeemed and is reduced to take account of the proportion of the award credits that are not expected to be redeemed by customers. The Group estimates the number of points not expected to be redeemed (using statistical modelling and historical trends) and the mix and fair value of the award credits. A one percentage point change in the assumption of points not expected to be redeemed will result in an adjustment to deferred revenue of €100 million, with an offsetting adjustment to revenue and operating profit recognised in the year.
The following three accounting estimates involve a higher degree of judgement or complexity, or are areas where assumptions are significant to the financial statements however these accounting estimates are not major sources of estimation uncertainty that have a significant risk of resulting in material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities within the next year.
c Income taxes
At December 31, 2018 the Group recognised €536 million in respect of deferred tax assets (2017: €523 million). Further information on current and deferred tax liabilities is disclosed in note 9.
The Group is subject to income taxes in numerous jurisdictions. Estimates are required in determining the worldwide provision for income taxes. There are many transactions and calculations for which the ultimate tax determination is uncertain because it may be unclear how tax law applies to a particular transaction or circumstance. The Group recognises liabilities for anticipated tax audit assessments. Where the final tax outcome of these matters is different from the amounts that were initially recorded, such differences will impact the current and deferred income tax assets and liabilities in the period in which such determination is made.
The Group recognises deferred income tax assets only to the extent that it is probable that the taxable profit will be available against which the deductible temporary differences, carried forward tax credits or tax losses can be utilised. Management consider the operating performance in the current year and the future projections of performance laid out in the approved Business plan in order to assess the probability of recoverability. The Business plan relies on the use of assumptions, estimates and judgements in respect of future performance and economics.
d Impairment of non-financial assets
At December 31, 2018 the Group recognised €2,403 million in respect of intangible assets with an indefinite life, including goodwill (2017: €2,363 million). Further information on these assets is included in note 14.
The Group assesses whether there are any indicators of impairment for all non-financial assets at each reporting date.
Other non-financial assets are tested for impairment when there are indicators that the carrying amounts may not be recoverable.
e Residual values and useful lives of assets
At December 31, 2018 the Group recognised €12,437 million in respect of property, plant and equipment (2017: €11,846 million). Further information on these assets is included in note 12.
The Group estimates useful lives and residual values of property, plant and equipment, including fleet assets based on network plans and recoverable values. Useful lives and residual values are reassessed annually, taking into consideration the latest fleet plans and other business plan information.
Engineering and other aircraft costs
At December 31, 2018, the Group recognised €1,359 million in respect of maintenance, restoration and handback provisions (2017: €1,125 million). Information on movements on the provision is disclosed in note 24.
The Group has a number of contracts with service providers to replace or repair engine parts and for other maintenance checks. These agreements are complex and generally cover a number of years. The Group exercises judgement in determining the assumptions used to match the consumption of replacement spares and other costs associated with fleet maintenance with the appropriate income statement charge. Aircraft maintenance obligations are based on aircraft utilisation, expected maintenance intervals, future maintenance costs and the aircraft's condition.
Changes in accounting policy and disclosures
a New and amended standards adopted by the Group
The Group has applied IFRS 15 'Revenue from contracts with customers' and IFRS 9 'Financial instruments' for the first time for the year to December 31, 2018. Further details on the impact of these standards on the Group accounting policies and financial position and performance are provided in note 33.
Other amendments to accounting standards, adopted for the first time in the year to December 31, 2018 have not resulted in a significant change to the financial position or performance of the Group, or to presentation and disclosures in the Group financial statements.
b New standards, amendments and interpretations not yet effective
The IASB issued IFRS 16 'Leases' with an effective date after the year end of these financial statements. This standard will impact the Group from January 1, 2019. Further information on the requirements of the standard is provided in note 33.
In addition the IASB's Interpretations Committee has issued IFRIC Interpretation 23 'Uncertainty over tax treatments'; effective for periods beginning on or after January 1, 2019. The interpretation clarifies application of recognition and measurement requirements in IAS 12 'Income Taxes' when there is uncertainty over income tax treatments. The Group has assessed the impact of the interpretation and it is not expected to have a material effect on the reported income or net assets of the Group.
There are no other standards, amendments or interpretations in issue but not yet adopted that the Directors anticipate will have a material effect on the reported income or net assets of the Group.
The Group has not early adopted any standard, amendment or interpretation that has been issued but is not yet effective.
3 Segment information
a Business segments
The chief operating decision-maker is responsible for allocating resources and assessing performance of the operating segments, and has been identified as the
The Group has a number of entities which are managed as individual operating companies including airline and platform functions. Each airline operates its network operations as a single business unit and the
The Group has determined its operating segments based on the way that it treats its businesses and the manner in which resource allocation decisions are made. British Airways,
The platform functions of the business primarily support the airline operations. These activities are not considered to be reportable operating segments as they either earn revenues incidental to the activities of the Group and resource allocation decisions are made based on the passenger business, or are not reviewed regularly by the
For the year to December 31, 2018
1 Includes eliminations on total assets of €13,681 million and total liabilities of €3,667 million.
For the year to December 31, 2017 (restated)
1 Includes eliminations on total assets of €13,031 million and total liabilities of €2,744 million.
b Geographical analysis
Revenue by area of original sale
Assets by area
December 31, 2018
December 31, 2017
4 Exceptional items
1 Restructuring costs
During 2018 British Airways continued to implement the restructuring programme that started in July 2016, to develop a more efficient and cost effective structure. The overall costs of the programme principally comprise employee severance costs and include other directly associated costs such as onerous lease provisions and asset write down costs. Costs incurred in the year to December 31, 2018 in respect of this programme amount to €136 million (2017: €108 million), with a related tax credit of €26 million (2017: €21 million).
In the year to December 31, 2017, €180 million of restructuring costs were recognised at
2 Employee benefit obligations
British Airways closed its New Airways Pension Scheme (NAPS) to future accrual and British Airways Retirement Plan (BARP) to future contributions from March 31, 2018. The schemes have been replaced by a flexible defined contribution scheme, the British Airways Pension Plan (BAPP). The changes resulted in a one-off reduction of the NAPS IAS 19 defined benefit liability of €872 million and associated transitional arrangement cash costs of €192 million through employee costs. These items are presented net, together with BARP closure costs, as an exceptional credit within the Income Statement of €678 million, with a related tax charge of €58 million.
On 26 October 2018, the High Court of Justice of
5 Expenses by nature
Operating profit is arrived at after charging
Depreciation, amortisation and impairment of non-current assets:
Operating leases costs:
Cost of inventories:
6 Auditors' remuneration
The fees for audit and non-audit services provided by the auditor of the Group's consolidated financial statements and of certain individual financial statements of the consolidated companies,
The audit fees payable are approved by the Audit and Compliance Committee and have been reviewed in the context of other companies for cost effectiveness. A description of the work of the Audit and Compliance Committee is set out in the Report of the Audit and Compliance Committee and includes an explanation of how objectivity and independence is safeguarded when non-audit services are provided.
7 Employee costs and numbers
1 Other employee costs include allowances and accommodation for crew.
The number of employees during the year and at December 31 was as follows:
8 Finance costs, income and other non-operating (charges)/credits
a Finance costs
b Finance income
c Net financing credit/(charge) relating to pensions
d Other non-operating (charges)/credits
a Tax charges
Tax (charge)/credit in the Income statement, Other comprehensive income and Statement of changes in equity:
For the year to December 31, 2018
Current tax in Other comprehensive income relates to employee retirement benefit plans, (€136m) and cash flow hedges (€26m).
For the year to December 31, 2017 (restated)
Current tax in Other comprehensive income relates to employee retirement benefit plans and current tax in the Statement of changes in equity relates to share-based payment schemes.
Current tax account
Current tax asset is €383 million (2017 restated: €258 million) and current tax liability is €165 million (2017 restated: €78 million).
b Deferred tax
For the year to December 31, 2018
The deferred tax asset is €536 million (2017 restated: €523 million) and mainly arises in
The deferred tax liability is €453 million (2017 restated: €526 million).
Within tax in Other comprehensive income is a tax credit of €222 million (2017: tax charge of €9 million) that may be reclassified to the Income statement and a tax credit of €133 million (2017 restated: tax charge of €160 million) that may not.
For the year to December 31, 2017
c Reconciliation of the total tax charge in the Income statement
The tax charge is calculated at the domestic rates applicable to proﬁts or losses in the Group's main countries of operation. The tax charge on the profit for the year to December 31, 2018 is lower than the notional tax charge.
The differences are explained below:
1 The expected tax charge is arrived at by aggregating the expected tax charges arising in each company in the Group. It changes each year as tax rates and profit mix change.
d Other taxes
The Group was also subject to other taxes and charges paid during the year which are as follows:
e Factors that may affect future tax charges
Unrecognised temporary differences - losses
None of the unrecognised temporary differences have an expiry date.
Unrecognised temporary differences - investment in subsidiaries and associates
No deferred tax liability has been recognised in respect of €2,826 million (2017 restated: €1,905 million) of temporary differences relating to subsidiaries and associates. The Group either controls the reversal of these temporary differences and it is probable that they will not reverse in the foreseeable future or no tax consequences would arise from their reversal.
Tax rate changes
Reductions in the
The Group files income tax returns in many jurisdictions throughout the world. Tax returns contain matters that are subject to potentially differing interpretations of tax laws and regulations, which may give rise to queries from and disputes with tax authorities. The resolution of these queries and disputes can take several years but the Group does not currently expect any material impact on the Group's financial position or results of operations to arise from such resolution. The extent to which there are open queries and disputes depends upon the jurisdiction and the issue.
10 Earnings per share
1 Includes 27 million as the weighted average impact for 65,956,660 treasury shares purchased in the share buyback programme (note 27).
The calculation of basic and diluted earnings per share before exceptional items is included in the Alternative performance measures section.
The proposed final dividend for 2018 would be distributed from net profit for the year to December 31, 2018.
Proposed dividends on ordinary shares are subject to approval at the annual general meeting and subject to approval are recognised as a liability on that date.
12 Property, plant and equipment
The net book value of property comprises:
At December 31, 2018, bank and other loans of the Group are secured on fleet assets with a cost of €467 million (2017: €938 million) and letters of credit of €256 million in favour of the British Airways Pension Trustees are secured on certain aircraft
13 Capital expenditure commitments
Capital expenditure authorised and contracted for but not provided for in the accounts amounts to €10,831 million (December 31, 2017: €12,137 million). The majority of capital expenditure commitments are denominated in US dollars, and as such are subject to changes in exchange rates.
The outstanding commitments include €10,716 million for the acquisition of 71 Airbus A320s (from 2019 to 2022), 21 Airbus A321s (from 2019 to 2020), 4 Airbus A330s (in 2019), 41 Airbus A350s (from 2019 to 2022), 4 Boeing 777-300s (in 2020) and 12 Boeing 787s (from 2020 to 2023).
14 Intangible assets and impairment review
a Intangible assets
1 The net book value includes non-EU based landing rights of €100 million (2017: €106 million) that have a definite life. The remaining life of these landing rights is 17 years.
b Impairment review
The carrying amounts of intangible assets with indefinite life and goodwill allocated to cash generating units (CGUs) of the Group are:
Basis for calculating recoverable amount
The recoverable amounts of CGUs have been measured based on their value-in-use.
Value-in-use is calculated using a discounted cash flow model. Cash flow projections are based on the Business plan approved by the Board covering a five year period. Cash flows extrapolated beyond the five year period are projected to increase based on long-term growth rates. Cash flow projections are discounted using the CGU's pre-tax discount rate.
Annually the Group prepares and the Board approves five year business plans. Business plans were approved in the fourth quarter of the year. The business plan cash flows used in the value-in-use calculations reflect all restructuring of the business that has been approved by the Board and which can be executed by Management under existing agreements.
For each of the CGUs the key assumptions used in the value-in-use calculations are as follows:
1 Operating margin for the Avios loyalty reward business is not adjusted for aircraft leases. ASK growth rate assumption is not applicable for Avios, which conducts business with partners both within and outside IAG.
Lease adjusted operating margin is the average annual operating result, adjusted for aircraft operating lease costs, as a percentage of revenue over the five year Business plan to 2023. It is presented as a percentage point range and is based on past performance, Management's expectation of the market development and incorporating risks into the cash flow estimates.
ASK growth is the average annual increase over the Business plan, based on planned network growth and taking into account Management's expectation of the market.
The long-term growth rate is calculated for each CGU based on the forecasted weighted average exposure in each primary market using gross domestic product (GDP) (source: Oxford Economics). The airline's network plans are reviewed annually as part of the Business plan and reflect Management's plans in response to specific market risk or opportunity.
Pre-tax discount rates represent the current market assessment of the risks specific to each CGU, taking into consideration the time value of money and underlying risks of its primary market. The discount rate calculation is based on the circumstances of the airline industry, the Group and the CGU. It is derived from the weighted average cost of capital (WACC). The WACC takes into consideration both debt and equity available to airlines. The cost of equity is derived from the expected return on investment by airline investors and the cost of debt is broadly based on the Group's interest-bearing borrowings. CGU specific risk is incorporated by applying individual beta factors which are evaluated annually based on available market data. The pre-tax discount rate reflects the timing of future tax flows.
Summary of results
In 2018, Management reviewed the recoverable amount of each of its CGUs and concluded the recoverable amounts exceeded the carrying values. Sensitivities have been considered for each CGU. Reducing long-term growth rates to zero, increasing pre-tax discount rates by 4 percentage points, and increasing the fuel price by 40 per cent, does not result in any impairment.
a Investments in subsidiaries
The Group's principal subsidiaries at December 31, 2018 are listed in the Group investments section.
All subsidiary undertakings are included in the consolidation. The proportion of the voting rights in the subsidiary undertakings held directly do not differ from the proportion of ordinary shares held. There have been no significant changes in ownership interests of subsidiaries during the year.
On August 28, 2018, British Airways exercised its option to redeem its €300 million, 6.75 per cent fixed coupon preferred securities which were previously classified as a non-controlling interest. The total non-controlling interest at December 31, 2018 is €6 million (2017: €307 million).
British Airways Employee Benefit Trustee (Jersey) Limited, a wholly-owned subsidiary of British Airways, governs the British Airways Plc Employee Share Ownership Trust (the Trust). The Trust is not a legal subsidiary of IAG; however, it is consolidated within the Group results.
b Investments in associates and joint ventures
The share of assets, liabilities, revenue and profit of the Group's associates and joint ventures, which are included in the Group's financial statements, are as follows:
The detail of the movement in Investment in associates and joint ventures is shown as follows:
At December 31, 2018 there are no restrictions on the ability of associates or joint ventures to transfer funds to the parent and there are no related contingent liabilities.
At both December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017 the investment in Sociedad Conjunta para la Emisión y Gestión de Medios de Pago EFC, S.A. exceeded 50 per cent ownership by the Group (50.5 per cent). The entity is treated as a joint venture as decisions regarding its strategy and operations require the unanimous consent of the parties who share control, including IAG.
16 Other equity investments
Other equity investments include the following:
The gain relating to other equity investments was €5 million (2017: €7 million).
17 Trade and other receivables
Movements in the provision for expected credit loss were as follows:
Trade receivables are generally non-interest-bearing and on 30 days terms (2017: 30 days).
The credit risk exposure on the Group's trade receivables is set out below:
December 31, 2018
December 31, 2017
18 Cash, cash equivalents and other current interest-bearing deposits
Cash at bank is primarily held in AAA money market funds and bank deposits. Short-term deposits are for periods up to three months and earn interest based on the floating deposit rates.
At December 31, 2018 the Group had no outstanding bank overdrafts (2017: nil).
Current interest-bearing deposits are made for periods in excess of three months with maturity typically within 12 months and earn interest based on the market rates available at the time the deposit was made.
At December 31, 2018 Aer Lingus held €42 million of restricted cash (2017: €43 million) within interest-bearing deposits maturing after more than three months to be used for employee related obligations.
a Net debt
Movements in net debt were as follows:
19 Trade and other payables
Average payment days to suppliers - Spanish Group companies
20 Deferred revenue on ticket sales
1 Where the Group acts as an agent in the provision of redemption products and services to customers through loyalty programmes, or in the provision of interline flights to passengers, revenue is recognised in the income statement net of the related costs.
Deferred revenue relating to customer loyalty programmes consists primarily of revenue allocated to performance obligations associated with Avios points. Avios points are issued by the Group's airlines through their loyalty programmes, or are sold to third parties such as credit card providers, who issue them as part of their loyalty programme. Active customer accounts do not have an expiry date and revenue may therefore be recognised at any time in the future. Deferred revenue in respect of sales in advance of carriage consists of revenue allocated to airline tickets to be used for future travel. Typically these tickets expire within 12 months after the planned travel date, if they are not used within that time period.
21 Other long-term liabilities
22 Long-term borrowings
Banks and other loans are repayable up to the year 2027. Bank and other loans of the Group amounting to €354 million (2017: €539 million) are secured on aircraft. Finance leases are all secured on aircraft or property, plant and equipment.
c Bank and other loans
1 Two senior unsecured bonds convertible into ordinary shares of IAG were issued by the Group in November 2015; €500 million fixed rate 0.25 per cent raising net proceeds of €494 million and due in 2020, and €500 million fixed rate 0.625 per cent raising net proceeds of €494 million and due in 2022. The Group holds an option to redeem each convertible bond at its principal amount, together with accrued interest, no earlier than two years prior to the final maturity date. The bonds contain dividend protection, and a total of 73,455,109 options related to the bonds were outstanding from issuance and at December 31, 2018.
2 Floating rate euro mortgage loans are secured on specific aircraft assets of the Group and bear interest of between 0.182 and 1.191 per cent. The loans are repayable between 2024 and 2027.
3 Total of €200 million fixed rate unsecured bonds between 2.5 to 3.75 per cent coupon repayable between 2019 and 2027.
4 Floating rate euro syndicate loan secured on investments is secured on specific assets of the Group and bears interest of 1.375 per cent plus 3 month EURIBOR. The loan is repayable in 2020.
5 Fixed rate Chinese yuan mortgage loans are secured on specific aircraft assets of the Group and bears interest of 5.20 per cent. The loans are repayable in 2022.
6 Fixed rate unsecured US dollar mortgage loan bearing interest between 1.98 and 2.37 per cent. The loan is repayable in 2023.
7 Fixed rate unsecured euro loans with the Spanish State (Department of Industry) bear interest of between nil and 5.68 per cent and are repayable between 2019 and 2026.
8 Floating rate pound sterling mortgage loans are secured on specific aircraft assets of the Group and bear interest of 0.81 per cent. The loans are repayable in 2019.
9 Fixed rate US dollar mortgage loans are secured on specific aircraft assets of the Group and bear interest of between 3.81 and 4.76 per cent. The loans were repaid in 2018.
d Total loans and finance leases
e Obligations under finance leases
The Group uses finance leases principally to acquire aircraft. These leases have both renewal and purchase options, at the option of the Group. Future minimum finance lease payments under finance leases are as follows:
23 Operating lease commitments
The Group has entered into commercial leases on certain properties, equipment and aircraft. These leases have durations ranging from less than one year to 13 years for aircraft and less than one year to five years for property, plant and equipment. One ground lease has a remaining lease of 127 years. Certain leases contain options for renewal.
The aggregate payments, for which there are commitments under operating leases, fall due as follows:
The Group entered into subleases for certain surplus rental properties and aircraft assets held under non-cancellable leases to third parties. These leases have remaining terms of one to six years and the assets are surplus to the Group's requirements. Future minimum rentals receivable under non-cancellable operating leases are €13 million (2017: €8 million) with €4 million (2017: €7 million) falling within one year, €9 million (2017: €1 million) between one and five years and nil (2017: nil) over five years.
24 Provision for liabilities and charges
Restoration and handback provisions
The provision for restoration and handback costs is maintained to meet the contractual maintenance and return conditions on aircraft held under operating leases. The provision also includes an amount relating to leased land and buildings where restoration costs are contractually required at the end of the lease. Where such costs arise as a result of capital expenditure on the leased asset, the restoration costs are capitalised. The provision is a long-term provision, typically covering the leased asset term which is up to 13 years.
The restructuring provision includes provisions for voluntary redundancies including the collective redundancy programme for Iberia's Transformation Plan, which provides for payments to affected employees until they reach the statutory retirement age. The amount provided for has been determined by an actuarial valuation made by independent actuaries, and was based on the same assumptions as those made to determine the provisions for obligations to flight crew below, with the exception of the discount rate, which in this case was 0.39 per cent. The payments related to this provision will continue over next ten years. During the year the Group recognised a provision of €136 million in relation to the restructuring plans at British Airways (note 4). The transformation programme has now been completed.
At December 31, 2018, €682 million of this provision related to collective redundancy programmes (2017: €719 million).
Employee leaving indemnities and other employee related provisions
This provision includes employees leaving indemnities relating to staff under various contractual arrangements.
The Group recognises a provision relating to flight crew who having met certain conditions, have the option of being placed on reserve and retaining their employment relationship until reaching the statutory retirement age, or taking early retirement. The Group is required to remunerate these employees until they reach the statutory retirement age, and an initial provision was recognised based on an actuarial valuation. The provision was reviewed at December 31, 2018 with the use of independent actuaries using the projected unit credit method, based on a discount rate consistent with the iBoxx index of 1.59 per cent and 0.39 per cent depending on whether the employees are currently active or not, the PERM/F-2000P mortality tables, and assuming a 1.50 per cent annual increase in the Consumer Price Index (CPI). This is mainly a long-term provision. The amount relating to this provision was €523 million at December 31, 2018 (2017: €542 million).
Legal claims provisions
Legal claims provisions includes:
• amounts for multi-party claims from groups or employees on a number of matters related to its operations, including claims for additional holiday pay and for age discrimination;
• provisions related to tax assessments; and
• amounts related to investigations by a number of competition authorities in connection with alleged anti-competitive activity concerning the Group's passenger and cargo businesses.
The final amount required to pay the remaining claims and fines is subject to uncertainty (note 31).
This provision includes the payment of €104 million for the reissued fine in March 2017 against British Airways, related to investigations by a number of competition authorities in connection with alleged anti-competitive activity concerning the Group's passenger and cargo businesses (note 31).
Other provisions includes:
• amounts for passengers whose flights were significantly delayed and are entitled to receive compensation. This provision is largely a current provision and is expected to have amounts both utilised and provided for each year. This provision is reassessed based on the historic level of claims;
• a provision for the Emissions Trading Scheme that for CO2 emitted on flights within the EU in excess of the EU Emission Allowances granted; and
• a provision related to unfavourable fleet contracts.
25 Financial risk management objectives and policies
The Group is exposed to a variety of financial risks: market risk (including fuel price risk, foreign currency risk and interest rate risk), counterparty risk and liquidity risk. Further information on the Group's financial instruments exposure to these risks is disclosed on note 26. The Board approves the key strategic principles and the risk appetite, defining the amount of risk that the Group is prepared to retain. The Group's Financial Risk Management programme focuses on the unpredictability of financial markets and seeks to minimise the risk of incremental costs arising from adverse financial markets movements.
Financial risks are managed under the oversight of the Group Treasury department. Fuel price fluctuations, euro-US dollar and sterling-US dollar exchange rate volatility represents the largest financial risks facing the Group. Other currencies as well as interest rate risk are also the subject of the Financial Risk Management programme. The IAG Management Committee approves the Group hedging profile and delegates to the operating company Risk Committee to agree on the degree of flexibility in applying the levels as defined by the IAG Management Committee. Each operating company Risk Committee meets at least once a month to review and approve a mandate to place hedging cover in the market including the instruments to be used.
The Group Treasury Committee provides a quarterly report on the hedging position to the IAG Management Committee and the Audit and Compliance Committee. The Board reviews the strategy and risk appetite once a year.
a Fuel price risk
The Group is exposed to fuel price risk. The Group's fuel price risk management strategy aims to provide protection against sudden and significant increases in fuel prices while ensuring that the Group is not competitively disadvantaged in the event of a substantial fall in the price. The Group strategy is to hedge a proportion of fuel consumption for up to three years, within certain defined limits.
Within the strategy, the Financial Risk Management programme allows for the use of a number of derivatives instruments available on over the counter (OTC) markets with approved counterparties.
The following table demonstrates the sensitivity of financial instruments to a reasonable possible change in fuel prices, with all other variables held constant, on result before tax and equity:
b Foreign currency risk
The Group presents its consolidated financial statements in euros, has subsidiaries with functional currencies in euro and pound sterling, and conducts business in a number of different countries. Consequently the Group is exposed to currency risk on revenue, purchases and borrowings that are denominated in a currency other than the functional currency of the entity. The currencies in which these transactions are denominated are primarily euro, US dollar and pound sterling. The Group generates a surplus in most currencies in which it does business. The US dollar is an exception as fuel purchases, maintenance expenses and debt repayments denominated in US dollars typically create a deficit.
The Group has a number of strategies to hedge foreign currency risk. The operational US dollar short position is subject to the same governance structure as the fuel hedging strategy set out above. The Group strategy, as approved by the IAG Management Committee, is to hedge a proportion of up to three years, within certain defined limits.
British Airways utilises its US dollar, euro, Japanese yen and Chinese yuan debt repayments as a hedge of future US dollar, euro, Japanese yen and Chinese yuan revenues. Iberia's balance sheet assets and liabilities in US dollars are hedged through a rolling programme of swaps and US dollar financial assets that eliminate the profit and loss volatility arising from revaluation of these items into euros. Vueling and Aer Lingus manage their net position in US dollars using derivative financial instruments.
The following table demonstrates the sensitivity of the Group's foreign exchange exposure to a reasonable possible change in the US dollar, sterling, Japanese yen and Chinese yuan exchange rates, with all other variables held constant, on result before tax and equity:
c Interest rate risk
The Group is exposed to changes in interest rates on debt and on cash deposits.
Interest rate risk on floating rate debt is managed through interest rate swaps, cross currency swaps and interest rate collars. After taking into account the impact of these derivatives, 77 per cent of the Group's borrowings were at fixed rates and 23 per cent were at floating rates.
All cash deposits are generally on tenors less than one year. The interest rate is predominantly fixed for the tenor of the deposit.
The following table demonstrates the sensitivity of the Group's interest rate exposure to a reasonable possible change in the US dollar, euro and pound sterling interest rates, on result before tax and equity:
d Counterparty risk
The Group is exposed to counterparty risk to the extent of non-performance by its counterparties in respect of financial assets receivable. The Group has policies and procedures in place to minimise the risk by placing credit limits on each counterparty. These policies and procedures are coordinated through IAG Group Treasury Policies. The Committee also reviews the application of the policies and procedures by British Airways, Iberia, Vueling and Aer Lingus. The Group monitors counterparty credit limits and defaults of counterparties, incorporating this information into credit risk controls. Treasury activities include placing money market deposits, fuel hedging and foreign currency transactions, which could lead to a concentration of different credit risks with the same counterparty. This risk is managed by allocation of exposure limits for the counterparty to British Airways, Iberia, Vueling and Aer Lingus. Exposures at the activity level are monitored on a daily basis and the overall exposure limit for the counterparty is reviewed at least monthly using available market information such as credit ratings. Sovereign risk is also monitored, country concentration and sovereign credit ratings are reviewed at every Group Treasury Committee meeting.
Operating companies invest cash in interest-bearing accounts, time deposits, and money market funds, choosing instruments with appropriate maturities or liquidity to retain sufficient headroom. At the reporting date the operating companies held money market funds and other liquid assets that are expected to readily generate cash inflows for managing liquidity risk.
The financial assets recognised in the financial statements, net of impairment losses, represent the Group's maximum exposure to credit risk, without taking account of any guarantees in place or other credit enhancements.
At December 31, 2018 the Group's credit risk position, allocated by region, in respect of treasury managed cash and derivatives was as follows:
e Liquidity risk
Liquidity risk management includes maintaining sufficient cash and interest-bearing deposits, the availability of committed credit facilities and the ability to close out market positions.
At December 31, 2018 the Group had undrawn overdraft facilities of €11 million (2017: €16 million). The Group held undrawn uncommitted money market lines of €28 million (2017: €28 million).
The Group held undrawn general and committed aircraft financing facilities:
The following table categorises the Group's (outflows) and inflows in respect of financial liabilities and derivative financial instruments into relevant maturity groupings based on the remaining period at December 31 to the contractual maturity date. The amounts disclosed in the table are the contractual undiscounted cash flows and include interest.
f Offsetting financial assets and liabilities
The following financial assets and liabilities are subject to offsetting, enforceable master netting arrangements and similar agreements.
The Group enters into derivative transactions under ISDA (International Swaps and Derivatives Association) documentation. In general, under such agreements the amounts owed by each counterparty on a single day in respect of all transactions outstanding are aggregated into a single net amount that is payable by one party to the other.
December 31, 2018
December 31, 2017
g Capital risk management
The Group's objectives when managing capital are to safeguard the Group's ability to continue as a going concern, to maintain an optimal capital structure, to reduce the cost of capital and to provide returns to shareholders.
The Group monitors capital on the basis of the adjusted net debt to EBITDAR ratio. For the year to December 31, 2018, the adjusted net debt to EBITDAR was 1.6 times (2017: 1.5 times). The definition and calculation for this performance measure is included in the Alternative performance measures section.
Further detail on liquidity and capital resources and capital risk management is disclosed in the financial review.
26 Financial instruments
a Financial assets and liabilities by category
The detail of the Group's ﬁnancial instruments at December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017 by nature and classiﬁcation for measurement purposes is as follows:
December 31, 2018
December 31, 2017
b Fair value of financial assets and financial liabilities
The fair values of the Group's financial instruments are disclosed in hierarchy levels depending on the nature of the inputs used in determining the fair values and using the following methods and assumptions as follows:
Level 1: Quoted prices (unadjusted) in active markets for identical assets and liabilities. A market is regarded as active if quoted prices are readily and regularly available from an exchange, dealer, broker, industry group, pricing service, or regulatory agency, and those prices represent actual and regularly occurring market transactions on an arm's length basis. Level 1 methodologies (market values at the balance sheet date) were used to determine the fair value of listed asset investments classified as equity investments and listed interest-bearing borrowings.
Level 2: Inputs other than quoted prices included within Level 1 that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly. The fair value of financial instruments that are not traded in an active market is determined by valuation techniques. These valuation techniques maximise the use of observable market data where it is available and rely as little as possible on entity specific estimates. Derivative intruments are measured based on the market value of instruments with similar terms and conditions at the balance sheet date using forward pricing models. Counterparty and own credit risk is deemed to be not significant. The fair value of the Group's interest-bearing borrowings including leases is determined by discounting the remaining contractual cash flows at the relevant market interest rates at the balance sheet date.
Level 3: Inputs for the asset or liability that are not based on observable market data. For unquoted investments, fair value has been determined based on the most recent arm's length transaction for an identical instrument. The Group monitors transactions of these instruments on a regular basis to ensure the fair value is based on the most recent arm's length price.
The fair value of cash and cash equivalents, other current interest-bearing deposits, trade receivables, other current assets and trade and other payables approximate their carrying value largely due to the short-term maturities of these instruments.
The carrying amounts and fair values of the Group's financial assets and liabilities at December 31, 2018 are as follows:
1 Current portion of derivative financial assets is €155 million.
2 Current portion of derivative financial liabilities is €656 million.
The carrying amounts and fair values of the Group's financial assets and liabilities at December 31, 2017 are set out below:
1 Current portion of derivative financial assets is €405 million.
2 Current portion of derivative financial liabilities is €111 million.
There have been no transfers between levels of fair value hierarchy during the year.
The financial instruments listed in the previous table are measured at fair value in the consolidated financial statements, with the exception of interest-bearing borrowings, which are measured at amortised cost.
c Level 3 financial assets reconciliation
The following table summarises key movements in Level 3 financial assets:
Cash flow hedges
At December 31, 2018 the Group's principal risk management activities that were hedging future forecast transactions were:
• Future loan repayments in foreign currency (predominantly US dollar loan repayments), hedging foreign exchange fluctuations on revenue cash inflows. Remeasurement gains and losses on the loans are recognised in equity and transferred to the income statement within revenue when the loan is repaid (generally in instalments over the life of the loan).
• Foreign exchange contracts, hedging foreign currency exchange risk on revenue cash inflows and certain operational payments. Remeasurement gains and losses on the derivatives are recognised in equity and transferred to the income statement or balance sheet to match against the related cash inflow or outflow.
• Forward crude, gas oil and jet kerosene derivative contracts, hedging price risk on fuel expenditure. Remeasurement gains and losses on the derivatives are recognised in equity and transferred to the income statement within fuel, oil costs and emissions charges to match against the related fuel cash outflow.
• Interest rate contracts, hedging interest rate risk on floating rate debt and certain operational payments.
The amounts included in equity and the related notional amounts are summarised below, along with the analysis of gains and losses recognised in the year associated with these instruments:
1 The carrying value of derivative instruments recognised in assets and liabilities is analysed in parts a and b above.
1 Represents the value of the hedged item.
Crude, gas oil and jet kerosene derivative contracts are used to hedge fuel purchases over a period of up to three years. Notional quantities associated with these contracts at December 31, 2018 amounted to 14 million tonnes (2017: 8 million tonnes) with a hedge price range of USD469 - 787 (2017: USD388 - 725).
The Group's loan repayment instalments used to hedge foreign currency risk on future revenue inflows were predominantly in US dollars and euros. At December 31, 2018 the related borrowings were $2,795 million (2017: $2,511 million); and €1,722 million (2017: €1,922 million).
1 Gains and losses recognised in Other comprehensive income represent gains and losses on the hedged items.
2 Ineffectiveness recognised in the Income statement is presented as Realised and Unrealised gains and losses on derivatives not qualifying for hedge accounting within other non-operating (charges)/credits.
1 Represents the value of the hedged item.
1 Gains and losses recognised in Other comprehensive income represent gains and losses on the hedged items.
2 Ineffectiveness recognised in the Income statement is presented as Realised and Unrealised gains and losses on derivatives not qualifying for hedge accounting within other non-operating (charges)/credits.
3 For the year to December 31, 2017, there were no gains or losses reclassified to the Balance Sheet.
There is an economic relationship between the hedged items and the hedging instruments as the terms of the hedging instruments match the terms of the highly probable forecast transactions. The Group has established a hedge ratio of 1:1 for the hedging relationships.
The Group has no significant fair value hedges at December 31, 2018 and 2017.
27 Share capital, share premium and treasury shares
During the year IAG carried out a €500 million share buyback programme as part of its corporate finance strategy to return cash to shareholders. The programme was executed between May and October 2018 during which time IAG acquired and subsequently cancelled 65,956,660 ordinary shares. A total of 1.2 million shares were issued to employees during the year as a result of vesting of employee share schemes. At December 31, 2018 the Group held 8.7 million shares (2017: 9.9 million) which represented 0.44 per cent of the issued share capital of the Company.
28 Share-based payments
The Group operates share-based payment schemes as part of the total remuneration package provided to employees. These schemes comprise both share option schemes where employees acquire shares at nil-cost and share award plans whereby shares are issued to employees at no cost, subject to the achievement by the Group of specified performance targets.
a IAG Performance Share Plan
The IAG Performance Share Plan (PSP) is granted to senior executives and managers of the Group who are most directly involved in shaping and delivering business success over the medium to long term. In 2014, a conditional award of shares was subject to the achievement of a variety of performance conditions, which vest after three years subject to the employee remaining employed by the Group. From 2015, the awards were made as nil-cost options, and also had a two-year additional holding period after the end of the performance period, before vesting takes place. The award made in 2014 vests based 50 per cent on achievement of IAG's TSR performance targets relative to the MSCI European Transportation Index, and 50 per cent based on achievement of earnings per share targets. The awards made from 2015 will vest based one-third on achievement of IAG's TSR performance targets relative to the MSCI European Transportation Index, one-third based on achievement of earnings per share targets, and one-third based on achievement of Return on Invested Capital targets.
b IAG Incentive Award Deferral Plan
The IAG Incentive Award Deferral Plan (IADP) is granted to qualifying employees based on performance and service tests. It will be awarded when an incentive award is triggered subject to the employee remaining in employment with the Group for three years after the grant date. The relevant population will receive 50 per cent of their incentive award up front in cash, and the remaining 50 per cent in shares after three years through the IADP.
c Share-based payment schemes summary
The fair value of equity-settled share-based payment plans determined using the Monte-Carlo valuation model, taking into account the terms and conditions upon which the plans were granted, used the following assumptions:
Volatility was calculated with reference to the Group's weekly pound sterling share price volatility. The expected volatility reflects the assumption that the historical volatility is indicative of future trends, which may not necessarily be the actual outcome. The fair value of the PSP also takes into account a market condition of TSR as compared to strategic competitors. No other features of share-based payment plans granted were incorporated into the measurement of fair value.
The Group recognised a share-based payment charge of €31 million for the year to December 31, 2018 (2017: €34 million).
29 Other reserves and non-controlling interest
For the year to December 31, 2018
For the year to December 31, 2017
1 The unrealised gains and losses reserve records fair value changes on equity investments and the portion of the gain or loss on a hedging instrument in a cash flow hedge that is determined to be an effective hedge.
2 The time value of options reserve records fair value changes on the cost of hedging.
3 The currency translation reserve records exchange differences arising from the translation of the financial statements of non-euro functional currency subsidiaries and investments accounted for under the equity method into the Group's reporting currency of euros. The movement through this reserve in 2018 is affected by the fluctuations in the pound sterling to euro foreign exchange translation rate.
4 The equity portion of convertible bond reserve represents the equity portion of convertible bonds issued. At December 31, 2018, this related to the €500 million fixed rate 0.25 per cent convertible bond and the €500 million fixed rate 0.625 per cent convertible bond (note 22).
5 The merger reserve originated from the merger transaction between British Airways and Iberia. The balance represents the difference between the fair value of the Group on the transaction date, and the fair value of Iberia and the book value of British Airways (including its reserves).
6 The redeemed capital reserve represents the nominal value of the decrease in share capital, relating to cancelled shares.
7 On August 28, 2018, British Airways exercised its option to redeem its €300 million, 6.75 per cent fixed coupon preferred security which was previously classified as a non-controlling interest. The total non-controlling interest at December 31, 2018 is €6 million. At December 31, 2018, non-controlling interests represent the shares in British Airways Plc and IB Opco Holding, S.L. held by UK and Spanish entities respectively, established for the purpose of implementing the British Airways and Iberia nationality structures. The route licences granted by civil aviation authorities in the UK and Spain require that the majority of the voting rights in British Airways and Iberia are held by UK and Spanish nationals. These entities own the majority of the voting rights in British Airways Plc and IB Opco Holding, S.L., with IAG holding 99 per cent of the economic rights in these companies.
30 Employee benefit obligations
The Group operates a variety of post-employment benefit arrangements, covering both defined contribution and defined benefit schemes. The Group also has a scheme for flight crew who meet certain conditions and therefore have the option of being placed on reserve and retaining their employment relationship until reaching the statutory retirement age, or taking early retirement (note 24).
Defined contribution schemes
The Group operates a number of defined contribution schemes for its employees. The defined contribution scheme British Airways Retirement Plan (BARP) was closed to future contributions on March 31, 2018. The BARP and NAPS schemes (see below) have been replaced by a flexible benefit scheme, incorporating a new defined contribution scheme that offers a choice of contribution rates and the ability to opt for cash instead of a pension.
Costs recognised in respect of defined contribution pension plans in Spain, UK and Ireland for the year to December 31, 2018 were €214 million (2017: €135 million).
Defined benefit schemes
i APS and NAPS
The principal funded defined benefit pension schemes within the Group are the Airways Pension Scheme (APS) and the New Airways Pension Scheme (NAPS), both of which are in the UK and are closed to new members. NAPS was closed to future accrual from March 31, 2018, resulting in a reduction of the defined benefit obligation. Following closure members' deferred pensions will now be increased annually by inflation up to five per cent per annum (measured using CPI), which is generally lower than the previous assumption for pay growth which included pay rises and promotions. NAPS members were offered a choice of transition arrangements, including non-cash options to increase their NAPS pensions prior to closure. The financial effect of the closure and the non-cash transition arrangements was a past service gain of €872 million which has been presented as an exceptional item net of transition costs of €192 million which were paid either directly to members or into their pension accounts. British Airways currently makes deficit contributions to NAPS of €333 million per annum until September 2027 plus additional contributions of up to €167 million per year depending on the cash balance at the end of March each year. As part of the closure of NAPS, British Airways agreed to make certain additional transition payments to NAPS members if the deficit had reduced more than expected at either the 2018 or 2021 valuations. No allowance for such payments has been made in the valuation of the defined benefit obligation.
APS has been closed to new members since 1984. The benefits provided under APS are based on final average pensionable pay and, for the majority of members, are subject to inflationary increases in payment in line with the Government's Pension Increase (Review) Orders (PIRO), which are based on CPI.
The Trustee of APS has proposed an additional discretionary increase above CPI inflation for pensions in payment for the year to March 31, 2014. British Airways challenged the decision and initiated legal proceedings to determine the legitimacy of the discretionary increase. The High Court issued a judgement in May 2017, which determined that the Trustee had the power to grant discretionary increases, whilst reiterating the Trustee must take into consideration all relevant factors, and ignore irrelevant factors. British Airways appealed the judgement to the Court of Appeal. On July 5, 2018 the Court of Appeal released its judgement, upholding British Airways' appeal, concluding the Trustee did not have the power to introduce a discretionary increase rule. Following the judgement, the Trustee was allowed permission to appeal to the Supreme Court; the Trustee has appealed. The delayed 2015 triennial valuation will be completed once the outcome of the appeal is known. British Airways is committed to an existing recovery plan, which sees deficit payments of €61 million per annum until March 2023.
APS and NAPS are governed by separate Trustee Boards, although much of the business of the two schemes is common. Most main Board and committee meetings are held in tandem although each Trustee Board reaches its decisions independently. There are three sub committees which are separately responsible for the governance, operation and investments of each scheme. British Airways Pension Trustees Limited holds the assets of both schemes on behalf of their respective Trustees.
Deficit payment plans are agreed with the Trustees of each scheme every three years based on the actuarial valuation (triennial valuation) rather than the IAS 19 accounting valuation. The latest deficit recovery plan was agreed on the March 31, 2012 position with respect to APS and March 31, 2015 with respect to NAPS (note 30i). The actuarial valuations performed at March 31, 2012 and March 31, 2015 are different to the valuation performed at December 31, 2018 under IAS 19 'Employee benefits' mainly due to timing differences of the measurement dates and to the specific scheme assumptions in the actuarial valuation compared with IAS 19 guidance used in the accounting valuation assumptions. For example, IAS 19 requires the discount rate to be based on corporate bond yields regardless of how the assets are actually invested, which may not result in the calculations in this report being a best estimate of the cost to the Company of providing benefits under either Scheme. The investment strategy of each Scheme is likely to change over its life, so the relationship between the discount rate and the expected rate of return on each Scheme's assets may also change.
ii Other plans
British Airways provides certain additional post-retirement healthcare benefits to eligible employees in the US through the US Post-Retirement Medical Benefit plan (US PRMB) which is considered to be a defined benefit scheme. In addition, Aer Lingus operates certain defined benefit plans, both funded and unfunded.
The defined benefit plans expose the Group to actuarial risks, such as longevity risk, interest rate risk, inflation risk, and market (investment) risk including currency risk.
iii Cash payments
Cash payments in respect to pension obligations comprise normal employer contributions by the Group; deficit contributions based on the agreed deficit payment plan with APS and NAPS; and cash sweep payments relating to additional payments made conditional on the level of cash in British Airways. Total payments for the year to December 31, 2018 net of service costs were €843 million (2017: €666 million) being the employer contributions of €716 million (2017: €899 million) less the current service cost of €55 million (2017: €233 million) (note 30b) and including payments made under transitional arrangements on the closure of NAPS to future accrual of €182 million.
a Employee benefit schemes recognised on the Balance Sheet
1 The present value of scheme liabilities for the US PRMB was €13 million at December 31, 2018 (2017: €15 million).
2 APS and NAPS have an accounting surplus under IAS 19 (2017: APS only), which would be available to the Group as a refund upon wind up of the scheme. This refund is restricted due to withholding taxes that would be payable by the Trustee.
b Amounts recognised in the Income statement
Pension costs charged to operating result are:
1 Past service net credit in 2018 includes a gain arising on the closure of NAPS to future accrual, resulting in a one-off reduction in the defined benefit obligation of €872 million and associated transitional arrangement cash costs of €192 million. On October 26, 2018 the High Court's judgement in the Lloyds Bank case confirmed that pension schemes are required to equalise for the effects of unequal GMPs accrued over the period since May 17, 1990. The estimated cost of equalising GMPs is €94 million. In determining the cost of equalising for GMPs, the Group has assumed that the Trustees will adopt Method C2 which was identified in the Lloyds judgement as the 'minimum interference' method which could be implemented without sponsor agreement.
Pension costs (credited)/charged as finance costs are:
c Remeasurements recognised in the Statement of other comprehensive income
d Fair value of scheme assets
A reconciliation of the opening and closing balances of the fair value of scheme assets is set out below:
1 Includes employer contributions to APS of €111 million (2017: €109 million) and to NAPS of €582 million (2017: €748 million), of which deficit funding
For both APS and NAPS, the Trustee has ultimate responsibility for decision making on investments matters, including the asset-liability matching strategy. The latter is a form of investing designed to match the movement in pension plan assets with the movement in the projected benefit obligation over time. The Trustees' investment committee adopts an annual business plan which sets out investment objectives and work required to support achievement of these objectives. The committee also deals with the monitoring of performance and activities, including work on developing the strategic benchmark to improve the risk return profile of the scheme where possible, as well as having a trigger based dynamic governance process to be able to take advantage of opportunities as they arise. The investment committee reviews the existing investment restrictions, performance benchmarks and targets, as well as continuing to develop the de-risking and liability hedging portfolio.
Both schemes use derivative instruments for investment purposes and to manage exposures to financial risks, such as interest rate, foreign exchange and liquidity risks arising in the normal course of business. Exposure to interest rate risk is managed through the use of Inflation-Linked Swap contracts. Foreign exchange forward contracts are entered into to mitigate the risk of currency fluctuations. For NAPS, a strategy exists to provide protection against the equity market downside risk by reducing some of the upside participation.
Scheme assets held by all defined benefit schemes operated by the Group at December 31 comprise:
All equities and bonds have quoted prices in active markets.
For APS and NAPS, the composition of the scheme assets is:
The strategic benchmark for asset allocations differentiate between 'return seeking assets' and 'liability matching assets'. Given the respective maturity of each scheme, the proportion for APS and NAPS vary. At December 31, 2018, the benchmark for APS was 8 per cent (2017: 9.5 per cent) in return seeking assets and 92 per cent (2017: 90.5 per cent) in liability matching investments; and for NAPS the benchmark was 49 per cent (2017: 65 per cent) in return seeking assets and 51 per cent (2017: 35 per cent) in liability matching investments. Bandwidths are set around these strategic benchmarks that allow for tactical asset allocation decisions, providing parameters for the investment committee and its investment managers to work within.
In addition to this, APS has an insurance contract with Rothesay Life which covers 24 per cent (2017: 24 per cent) of the pensioner liabilities for an agreed list of members. The insurance contract is based on future increases to pensions in line with inflation and will match future obligations on that basis for that part of the scheme. The insurance contract can only be used to pay or fund employee benefits under the scheme. The Trustee of APS also has secured a longevity swap contract with Rothesay Life, which covers an additional 20 per cent (2017: 20 per cent) of the pensioner liabilities for the same members covered by the insurance contract above. The value of the contract is based on the difference between the value of the payments expected to be received under this contract and the pensions payable by the scheme under the contract.
During 2018 the Trustee of APS secured a buy-in contract with Legal & General and at the same time novated the two longevity swaps established in 2017 one with Canada Life and one with Partner Reinsurance which had covered 13 per cent and 8 per cent respectively of the pensioner liabilities. The buy-in contract covers all members in receipt of pension from APS at March 31, 2018, excluding dependent children receiving a pension at that date and members in receipt of equivalent pension (EPB) only benefits, who are alive on October 1, 2018. Benefits coming into payment for retirements after March 31, 2018 are not covered. The contract covers benefits payable from October 1, 2018 onwards. The policy covers approximately 60 per cent of all benefits APS expects to pay out in future. Along with existing insurance products (the asset swap and longevity swaps with Rothesay Life), APS is now 90 per cent protected against all longevity risk and fully protected in relation to all pensions that were already being paid as at March 31, 2018. It is also more than 90 per cent protected against interest rates and inflation (on a Retail Price Index (RPI) basis).
e Present value of scheme liabilities
A reconciliation of the opening and closing balances of the present value of the defined benefit obligations is set out below:
The defined benefit obligation comprises €36 million (2017: €28 million) arising from unfunded plans and €25,347 million
f Effect of the asset ceiling
A reconciliation of the effect of the asset ceiling used in calculating the IAS 19 irrecoverable surplus in APS and NAPS is set out below:
The increase in remeasurements is mainly due to the closure of NAPS to future accrual in 2018. Following this the scheme is now in an IAS 19 accounting surplus, which would be available to the company as a refund upon wind up of the scheme. This refund is restricted due to withholding taxes that would be payable by the Trustee e.g. Actuarial assumptions
The principal assumptions used for the purposes of the actuarial valuations were as follows:
1 Discount rate is determined by reference to the yield on high quality corporate bonds of currency and term consistent with the scheme liabilities.
2 Rate of increase in pensionable pay is assumed to be in line with long-term market inflation expectations. The inflation rate assumptions for NAPS and APS are based on the difference between the yields on index-linked and fixed-interest long-term government bonds.
3 It has been assumed that the rate of increase of pensions in payment will be in line with CPI for APS and NAPS. The Trustee of the Airways Pension Scheme (APS) had proposed an additional discretionary increase above CPI for pensions in payment for the year ended March 31, 2014. British Airways challenged the decision and initiated legal proceedings to determine the legitimacy of the discretionary increase. The High Court issued a judgement in May 2017, which determined that the Trustee had the power to grant discretionary increases, whilst reiterating the Trustee must take into consideration all relevant factors, and ignore irrelevant factors. British Airways appealed the judgement to the Court of Appeal. On July 5, 2018 the Court of Appeal released its judgement, upholding British Airways' appeal, concluding the Trustee did not have the power to introduce a discretionary increase rule. Following the July 2018 judgement, the Trustee has appealed to the Supreme Court. The proposed discretionary increase is not included in the assumptions above.
Rate of increase in healthcare costs is based on medical trend rates of 6.25 per cent grading down to 5.0 per cent over five years (2017: 6.5 per cent to 5.0 per cent over seven years).
In the UK, mortality rates are calculated using the standard SAPS mortality tables produced by the CMI for APS and NAPS. The standard mortality tables were selected based on the actual recent mortality experience of members and were adjusted to allow for future mortality changes. The current longevities underlying the values of the scheme liabilities were as follows:
At December 31, 2018, the weighted-average duration of the defined benefit obligation was 11 years for APS (2017: 12 years) and 19 years for NAPS (2017: 20 years).
In the US, mortality rates were based on the RP-14 mortality tables.
h Sensitivity analysis
Reasonable possible changes at the reporting date to significant actuarial assumptions, holding other assumptions constant, would have affected the present value of scheme liabilities by the amounts shown:
Although the analysis does not take into account the full distribution of cash flows expected under the plan, it does provide an approximation of the sensitivity of the assumptions shown.
Pension contributions for APS and NAPS were determined by actuarial valuations made at March 31, 2012 and March 31, 2015 respectively, using assumptions and methodologies agreed between the Group and Trustee of each scheme. At the date of the actuarial valuation, the actuarial deficits of APS and NAPS amounted to €932 million and €3,818 million respectively. In order to address the deficits in the schemes, the Group has also committed to the following undiscounted deficit payments:
The Group has determined that the minimum funding requirements set out above for APS and NAPS will not be restricted. The present value of the contributions payable is expected to be available as a refund or a reduction in future contributions after they are paid into the plan. This determination has been made independently for each plan, subject to withholding taxes that would be payable by the Trustee.
Deficit payments in respect of local arrangements outside of the UK have been determined in accordance with local practice.
In total, the Group expects to pay €398 million in employer contributions and deficit payments to the two significant post-retirement benefit plans in 2019. This is made up of €61 million and €333 million of deficit payments for APS and NAPS respectively as agreed at the latest triennial valuations. In addition, ongoing employer contributions for 2019 are expected to be €4 million for APS. This excludes any additional deficit contribution that may become due depending on British Airways' cash balance as at March 31, 2019. The Group also expects to pay €278 million in 2019, having provided collateral on certain payments to the Company's pension scheme, APS and NAPS, which at December 31, 2018 amounted to €278 million (2017: €283 million). This amount is payable because the pension schemes are not fully funded on a conservative basis, with a gilts-based discount rate on January 1, 2019 as determined by the scheme actuary.
Until September 2019, if British Airways pays a dividend to IAG higher than 35 per cent of profit after tax it will either provide the scheme with a guarantee for 100 per cent of the amount above 35 per cent or 50 per cent of that amount as an additional cash contribution.
31 Contingent liabilities and guarantees
The Group has certain contingent liabilities which at December 31, 2018 amounted to €88 million (December 31, 2017: €93 million). No material losses are likely to arise from such contingent liabilities. The Group also has the following claims:
The European Commission issued a decision in which it found that British Airways, and 10 other airline groups, had engaged in cartel activity in the air cargo sector (Original Decision). British Airways was fined €104 million. Following an appeal, the decision was subsequently partially annulled against British Airways (and annulled in full against the other appealing airlines) (General Counsel Judgement), and the fine was refunded in full. British Airways appealed the partial annulment to the Court of Justice, but that appeal was rejected.
In parallel, the European Commission chose not to appeal the General Counsel Judgement, and instead adopted a new decision in March 2017 (New Decision). The New Decision re-issued fines against all the participating carriers, which match those contained in the Original Decision. British Airways has therefore again been fined €104 million. British Airways has appealed the New Decision to the GC again (as have other carriers).
A large number of claimants have brought proceedings in the English courts to recover damages from British Airways which, relying on the findings in the Commission decisions, they claim arise from the alleged cartel activity. British Airways joined the other airlines alleged to have participated in cartel activity to those proceedings to contribute. A number of those claims were concluded in 2018.
British Airways is also party to similar litigation in a number of other jurisdictions including Germany, the Netherlands and Canada together with a number of other airlines. At present, the outcome of the proceedings is unknown. In each case, the precise effect, if any, of the alleged cartelising activity on the claimants will need to be assessed.
The Trustees of the Airways Pension Scheme (APS) had proposed an additional discretionary increase above CPI for pensions in payment for the year to March 31, 2014. British Airways challenged the decision and initiated legal proceedings to determine the legitimacy of the discretionary increase. The outcome of the legal proceedings was issued in May 2017, which concluded the Trustees had the power to grant discretionary increases, whilst reiterating they must take into consideration all relevant factors, and ignore irrelevant factors. The Group appealed the judgement to the Court of Appeal. On July 5, 2018 the Court of Appeal released its judgement, upholding British Airways' appeal, concluding the Trustee did not have the power to introduce a discretionary increase rule. British Airways will not have to reflect the increase in liabilities of €13 million that would have applied had the proposed increase for the 2013/14 scheme year been paid by the Trustee. The Trustee has appealed to the Supreme Court.
Theft of customer data at British Airways
On September 6, 2018 British Airways announced the theft of certain of its customers' personal data. Following an investigation into the theft, British Airways announced on October 25, 2018 that further personal data had potentially been compromised. As at the date of this report, BA was not aware of any confirmed cases of fraud. British Airways continues to cooperate with the investigations of the UK Information Commissioner's Office and other relevant regulators. British Airways has received letters before action from certain UK law firms threatening claims arising from the data breach. Additionally, a putative class action has been filed in the Eastern District of New York, USA. The outcome of the various investigations and litigation, which British Airways will vigorously defend, is uncertain. British Airways holds certain insurance policies.
British Airways has provided collateral on certain payments to its pension schemes, APS and NAPS, which at December 31, 2018 amounted to €278 million (December 31, 2017: €283 million). This amount would be payable in the event that the pension schemes are not fully funded on a conservative basis with a gilts-based discount rate on January 1, 2019 and will be determined by the scheme actuary.
In addition, a guarantee amounting to €256 million (2017: €260 million) was issued by a third party in favour of APS, triggered in the event of British Airways' insolvency.
The Group also has other guarantees and indemnities entered into as part of the normal course of business, which at December 31, 2018 are not expected to result in material losses for the Group.
32 Related party transactions
The following transactions took place with related parties for the financial years to December 31:
1 Sales to associates: Consisted primarily of sales for airline related services to Dunwoody Airline Services (Holding) Limited (Dunwoody) of €5 million
2 Sales to and purchases from significant shareholders: Related to interline services and wet leases with Qatar Airways.
3 Purchases from associates: Mainly included €35 million of airport auxiliary services purchased from Multiservicios Aeroportuarios, S.A. (2017: €35 million), €6 million of handling services provided by Dunwoody (2017: €13 million) and €13 million of maintenance services received from Serpista, S.L. (2017: €9 million).
4 Amounts owed by associates: For airline related services rendered, that included balances with Dunwoody of €5 million (2017: €1 million) and €2 million of services provided to Multiservicios Aeroportuarios, S.A., Viajes AME, S.A., Iberia Cards (Sociedad Conjunta para la Emisión y Gestión de Medios de Pago E.F.C., S.A.) and Empresa Hispano Cubana de Mantenimiento de Aeronaves, Ibeca, S.A. (2017: €1m for Multiservicios Aeroportuarios, S.A., Serpista, S.A. and Empresa Hispano Cubana de Mantenimiento de Aeronaves, Ibeca, S.A.).
5 Amounts owed by and to significant shareholders: Related to Qatar Airways.
6 Amounts owed to associates: Consisted primarily of less than €1 million due to Dunwoody (2017: €1 million), €3 million to Serpista, S.A. (2017: €2 million) and less than €1 million to Multiservicios Aeroportuarios, S.A. (2017: less than €1 million).
During the year to December 31, 2018 British Airways met certain costs of administering its retirement benefit plans, including the provision of support services to the Trustees. Costs borne on behalf of the retirement benefit plans amounted to €9.5 million (2017: €7 million) in relation to the costs of the Pension Protection Fund levy.
The Group has transactions with related parties that are conducted in the normal course of the airline business, which include the provision of airline and related services. All such transactions are carried out on an arm's length basis.
For the year to December 31, 2018, the Group has not made any provision for doubtful debts arising relating to amounts owed by related parties (2017: nil).
In this instance, significant shareholders are those parties who have the power to participate in the financial and operating policy decisions of the Group, as a result of their shareholdings in the Group, but who do not have control over these policies.
At December 31, 2018 the Group had cash deposit balances with shareholders holding a participation of between 3 to 5 per cent, of €98 million (2017: €90 million).
Board of Directors and Management Committee remuneration
Compensation received by the Group's Board of Directors and Management Committee, in 2018 and 2017 is as follows:
At December 31, 2018 the Board of Directors includes remuneration for two Executive Directors (December 31, 2017: two Executive Directors). The Management Committee includes remuneration for ten members (December 31, 2017: nine members).
The Company provides life insurance for all executive directors and the Management Committee. For the year to December 31, 2018 the Company's obligation was €58,000(2017: €38,000).
At December 31, 2018 the transfer value of accrued pensions covered under defined benefit pension obligation schemes, relating to the current members of the Management Committee totalled €4 million (2017 : €4 million).
No loan or credit transactions were outstanding with Directors or offices of the Group at December 31, 2018 (2017: nil).
33 Changes to accounting policies
The Group has adopted IFRS 15 'Revenue from contracts with customers' from January 1, 2018. The standard establishes a five-step model that applies to revenue arising from contracts with customers. Revenue is recognised at an amount that reflects the consideration to which an entity expects to be entitled in exchange for goods and services and at a point when the performance obligations associated with these goods and services have been satisfied.
The Group has identified the following changes to revenue recognition on adoption of the standard:
• Loyalty revenue - revenue associated with performance obligations arising on the sale of loyalty points, including revenue allocated to brand and marketing services and revenue allocated to Avios points, has been determined based on the relative stand-alone selling price of each performance obligation. Revenue associated with brand and marketing services is recognised as the points are issued. Revenue allocated to the Avios points is deferred and recognised when the points are redeemed. The impact of assessing the stand-alone selling prices of the individual performance obligations has resulted in a greater portion of revenue being deferred on issuance, because the stand-alone selling price of the points was higher than the fair value applied under IFRIC 13 'Customer loyalty programmes'.
On implementation of IFRS 15, the Group assessed all contracts associated with the loyalty programmes at the date of initial application. This resulted in an increase in the number of points deferred in respect of incomplete contracts and which are expected to be redeemed in the future.
The Group also changed the way that costs associated with the redemption of Avios points with third parties are presented. The revenue arising from these transactions is presented net of the related costs as IAG's obligation is to arrange for goods and services to be provided by third party suppliers.
• Passenger revenue - revenue associated with ancillary services that was previously recognised when paid, such as administration fees, is deferred to align with the recognition of revenue associated with the related travel.
• Cargo revenue - interline cargo revenue is presented gross rather than net of related costs as IAG is considered to have a performance obligation to provide cargo services to its customers, rather than an obligation to arrange cargo services to be provided by third parties.
• Other revenue - revenue associated with maintenance activities and holiday revenue with performance obligations that are fulfilled over time, is recognised over the performance obligation period using a methodology that reflects the activity undertaken in order to satisfy the obligation.
The Group has applied the standard on a fully retrospective basis and restated prior year comparatives on adoption of IFRS 15. Practical expedients have not been used. The adjustment to opening retained earnings at January 1, 2017 arising from the changes to loyalty revenue recognition amounted to a charge of €403 million. Deferred revenue on ticket sales increased by €497 million and the net tax asset increased by €94 million. Other changes to revenue recognition resulted in a charge to retained earnings at January 1, 2017 of €27 million.
The Group has adopted IFRS 9 'Financial Instruments' from January 1, 2018. The standard amends the classification and measurement models for financial assets and adds new requirements to address the impairment of financial assets. It also introduces a new hedge accounting model to more closely align hedge accounting with risk management strategy and objectives. The Group has identified the following changes to the classification and measurement of financial assets and accounting for derivative instruments used for hedging.
• Equity investments, previously classified as available-for-sale, are measured at fair value through Other comprehensive income, with no recycling of gains and losses. In addition, the Group has adopted a new impairment model for trade receivables and other financial assets, with no material adjustment to existing provisions. The Group will continue to recognise most financial assets at amortised cost as the contractual cash flows associated with these assets are solely payments of principal and interest.
• The Group continues to undertake hedging activity in line with its financial risk management objectives and policies. Movements in the time value of options are now classified as cost of hedging and recognised in Other comprehensive income, with prior year comparatives restated. At January 1, 2017 there was a reclassification of €38 million of post-tax gains from retained earnings to unrealised net gains in Other reserves to reflect the reclassification of gains and losses associated with the time value of options. Movements in the time value of options recognised in Other comprehensive income in 2017 are set out in note 29.
Impact on financial statements
The following tables summarise the impact of adopting IFRS 15 and IFRS 9 on the Consolidated income statement for the 12 months to December 31, 2017 and the Consolidated balance sheet as at December 31, 2017 and January 1, 2017.
Consolidated income statement (extract for the 12 months to December 31, 2017)
Consolidated balance sheet (extract as at December 31, 2017)
Consolidated balance sheet (extract as at January 1, 2017)
The Group has not adopted any other standards, amendments or interpretations in the 12 months to December 31, 2018 that have had a significant change to its financial performance or position.
IFRS 16 'Leases' will be adopted by the Group from January 1, 2019. The new standard eliminates the classification of leases as either operating leases or finance leases and introduces a single lessee accounting model. The Group has a number of operating leases for assets including aircraft, property and other equipment.
The main changes arising on the adoption of IFRS 16 will be as follows:
1. Interest-bearing borrowings and non-current assets will increase on implementation of the standard as obligations to make future payments under leases currently classified as operating leases will be recognised on the Balance sheet, along with the related 'right-of-use' (ROU) asset. The Group has opted to use the practical expedients in respect of leases of less than 12 months duration and leases for low value items and excluded them from the scope of IFRS 16. Rental payments associated with these leases will be recognised in the Income statement on a straight-line basis over the life of the lease.
2. There will be a reduction in expenditure on operations and an increase in finance costs as operating lease costs are replaced with depreciation and lease interest expense.
3. The adoption of IFRS 16 will require the Group to make a number of judgements, estimates and assumptions. These include:
- The approach to be adopted on transition. The Group will use the modified retrospective transition approach. Lease liabilities will be determined based on the appropriate incremental borrowing rates and rates of exchange at the date of transition (January 1, 2019). ROU assets in respect of aircraft will be measured at the appropriate incremental borrowing rates at the date of transition and rates of exchange at the commencement of each lease, and will be depreciated from the lease commencement date to the date of transition. Other ROU assets will be measured based on the related lease liability. IFRS 16 does not allow comparative information to be restated if the modified retrospective transition approach is used.
- The estimated lease term. The term of each lease will be based on the original lease term unless management is 'reasonably certain' to exercise options to extend the lease. Further information used to determine the appropriate lease term includes fleet plans which underpin approved business plans, and historic experience regarding extension options.
- The discount rate used to determine the lease liability. The rates used on transition to discount future lease payments are the Group's incremental borrowing rates. These rates have been calculated for each airline, reflecting the underlying lease terms and based on observable inputs. The risk-free rate component has been based on LIBOR rates available in the same currency and over the same term as the lease and has been adjusted for credit risk. For future lease obligations, the Group is proposing to use the interest rate implicit in the lease.
- Terminal arrangements. The Group has reviewed its arrangements at airport terminals to determine whether any agreements previously considered to be service agreements should be classified as leases. No additional leases have been identified following this review.
- Restoration obligations. The Group has identified certain obligations associated with the maintenance condition of its aircraft on redelivery to the lessor, such as the requirement to complete a final airframe check, repaint the aircraft and reconfigure the cabin. These have been recognised as part of the ROU asset on transition. Judgement has been used to identify the appropriate obligations and estimation has been used (based observable data) to measure them. Other maintenance obligations associated with these assets, comprising obligations that arise as the aircraft is utilised, such as engine overhauls and periodic airframe checks, will continue to be recognised as a maintenance expense over the lease term.
4. For future reporting periods after adoption, foreign exchange movements on lease obligations, which are predominantly denominated in US dollars, will be remeasured at each balance sheet date, however the ROU asset will be recognised at the historic exchange rate. This will create volatility in the Income statement. The Group intends to manage this volatility as part of its risk management strategy.
The Group expects that the following assets and liabilities will be recognised on the Consolidated balance sheet at January 1, 2019 on adoption of IFRS 16 (rounded to the nearest €5 million):
Consolidated balance sheet (extract as at January 1, 2019)