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News Release

IAG Final Results 2018
RNS Number : 3527R
International Cons Airlines Group
28 February 2019
 

 

Full year results announcement

International Consolidated Airlines Group (IAG) today (February 28, 2019) presented Group consolidated results for the year to December 31, 2018.

IAG period highlights on results:

•   Fourth quarter operating profit €655 million before exceptional items (2017 restated1: €550 million)

•   Net foreign exchange operating profit impact for the quarter adverse €9 million

•   Passenger unit revenue for the quarter up 1.6 per cent, up 1.5 per cent at constant currency

•   Non-fuel unit costs before exceptional items for the quarter up 0.9 per cent, up 0.5 per cent at constant currency

•   Fuel unit costs for the quarter up 9.5 per cent, up 9.2 per cent at constant currency

•   Operating profit before exceptional items for the year to December 31, 2018 of €3,230 million (2017 restated1: €2,950 million), up 9.5 per cent

•   Net foreign exchange impact for the year adverse €129 million

•   Passenger unit revenue for the year up 0.1 per cent and up 2.4 per cent at constant currency

•   Non-fuel unit costs for the year before exceptional items down 2.2 per cent and down 0.8 per cent at constant currency

•   Fuel unit costs for the year up 8.0 per cent, up 12.5 per cent at constant currency

•   Cash of €6,274 million at December 31, 2018 was down €402 million on 2017 year end and adjusted net debt to EBITDAR increased 0.1 to 1.6 times

•   Profit after tax before exceptional items €2,481 million up 11.2 per cent, and adjusted earnings per share up 15.1 per cent

•   Final proposed dividend of 16.5 € cents per share

•   Proposed special dividend of 35.0 € cents per share, approximately €700 million

Performance summary:

  

Year to December 31

Highlights € million

2018

2017
(restated)1

Higher / (lower)

Passenger revenue

21,549

20,285

6.2 %

Total revenue

24,406

22,880

6.7 %

Operating profit before exceptional items

3,230

2,950

9.5 %

Exceptional items

448

(288)

nm

Operating profit after exceptional items

3,678

2,662

38.2%

 

 

 

 

Available seat kilometres (ASK million)

324,808

306,185

6.1 %

Passenger revenue per ASK (€ cents)

6.63

6.63

0.1 %

Non-fuel costs per ASK (€ cents)

4.89

5.00

(2.2)%

 

 

 

 

Alternative performance measures

2018

2017
(restated)1

Higher / (lower)

Profit after tax before exceptional items (€ million)

2,481

2,231

11.2 %

Adjusted earnings per share (€ cents)

117.7

102.2

15.1 %

Adjusted net debt (€ million)

8,355

7,759

7.7 %

Adjusted net debt to EBITDAR

1.6

1.5

0.1x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Statutory results € million

2018

2017
(restated)1

Higher / (lower)

Profit after tax and exceptional items

2,897

2,009

44.2 %

Basic earnings per share (€ cents)

142.7

95.2

49.8 %

Cash and interest-bearing deposits

6,274

6,676

(6.0)%

Interest-bearing long-term borrowings

7,509

7,331

2.4 %

Definitions included in Alternative performance measures section.

1     Restated for new accounting standards IFRS 15 'Revenue from contracts with customers' and IFRS 9 'Financial instruments'; refer to note 33.

Willie Walsh, IAG Chief Executive Officer, said:

"In 2018, we're reporting an operating profit of €3,230 million before exceptional items, up 9.5 per cent compared to last year. Yet again, we've improved our operating profit this year and our adjusted earnings per share grew by 15.1 per cent. This was a very good performance despite three significant challenges: fuel prices increasing 30 per cent, considerable Air Traffic Control disruption and an adverse foreign exchange impact of €129 million.

"At constant currency, passenger unit revenue improved by 2.4 per cent while non-fuel unit costs decreased by 0.8 per cent on capacity growth of 6.1 per cent.

"In quarter 4, we reported an operating profit of €655 million before exceptional items, up 19.1 per cent compared to last year. Our strong revenue performance continued with passenger unit revenue up 1.5 per cent at constant currency.

"In 2018, we completed our second share buyback which was worth €500 million. We are also returning more than €1.3 billion to our shareholders via ordinary dividends of €615 million and a special dividend of approximately €700 million. This is around €260 million higher than in the previous year".

Trading outlook

At current fuel prices and exchange rates, IAG expects its 2019 operating profit before exceptional items and impacts of IFRS16 to be broadly in line with €3,230m reported in 2018. Both passenger unit revenue and ex-fuel unit cost is expected to improve at constant currency.

LEI: 959800TZHQRUSH1ESL13

This announcement contains inside information and is disclosed in accordance with the Company's obligations under the Market Abuse Regulation (EU) No 596/2014.

Enrique Dupuy, Chief Financial Officer

Forward-looking statements:

Certain statements included in this report are forward-looking. These statements can be identified by the fact that they do not relate only to historical or current facts. By their nature, they involve risk and uncertainties because they relate to events and depend on circumstances that will occur in the future. Actual results could differ materially from those expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements.

Forward-looking statements often use words such as "expects", "may", "will", "could", "should", "intends", "plans", "predicts", "envisages" or "anticipates" or other words of similar meaning. They include, without limitation, any and all projections relating to the results of operations and financial conditions of International Consolidated Airlines Group S.A. and its subsidiary undertakings from time to time (the 'Group'), as well as plans and objectives for future operations, expected future revenues, financing plans, expected expenditure and divestments relating to the Group and discussions of the Group's business plan. All forward-looking statements in this report are based upon information known to the Group on the date of this report and speak as of the date of this report. Other than in accordance with its legal or regulatory obligations, the Group does not undertake to update or revise any forward-looking statement to reflect any changes in events, conditions or circumstances on which any such statement is based.

There are several factors that could cause actual results to differ from those expressed or implied in forward-looking statements, and it is not reasonably possible to itemise each of them. Further information on the primary risks of the business and the Group's risk management process is set out in the 'Risk management and principal risk factors' section in the Annual Report and Accounts 2017; these documents are available on www.iagshares.com. All forward-looking statements made on or after the date of this document and attributable to IAG are expressly qualified in their entirety by the primary risks set out in that section.

IAG Investor Relations

Waterside (HAA2), PO Box 365, Harmondsworth, Middlesex, UB7 0GB

Tel: +44 (0)208 564 2900

Investor.relations@iairgroup.com

Consolidated Income Statement


Year to December 31

 

€ million

Before exceptional items
2018

Exceptional items

Total
2018

Before exceptional items
2017
(restated)1

Exceptional
items

Total
2017
(restated)1

Higher/
(lower)

Passenger revenue

21,549

 

21,549

20,285

 

20,285

6.2 %

Cargo revenue

1,173

 

1,173

1,132

 

1,132

3.6 %

Other revenue

1,684

 

1,684

1,463

 

1,463

15.1 %

Total revenue

24,406

 

24,406

22,880

 

22,880

6.7 %

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Employee costs

4,812

(460)

4,352

4,740

248

4,988

1.5 %

Fuel, oil costs and emissions charges

5,283

 

5,283

4,610

 

4,610

14.6 %

Handling, catering and other operating costs

2,888

 

2,888

2,673

14

2,687

8.0 %

Landing fees and en-route charges

2,184

 

2,184

2,151

 

2,151

1.5 %

Engineering and other aircraft costs

1,828

 

1,828

1,773

19

1,792

3.1 %

Property, IT and other costs

918

12

930

915

7

922

0.3 %

Selling costs

1,046

 

1,046

982

 

982

6.5 %

Depreciation, amortisation and impairment

1,254

 

1,254

1,184

 

1,184

5.9 %

Aircraft operating lease costs

890

 

890

888

 

888

0.2 %

Currency differences

73

 

73

14

 

14

421.4 %

Total expenditure on operations

21,176

(448)

20,728

19,930

288

20,218

6.3 %

Operating profit

3,230

448

3,678

2,950

(288)

2,662

9.5 %

Net non-operating costs

(191)

 

(191)

(181)

 

(181)

5.5 %

Profit before tax

3,039

448

3,487

2,769

(288)

2,481

9.8 %

Tax

(558)

(32)

(590)

(538)

66

(472)

3.7 %

Profit after tax for the year

2,481

416

2,897

2,231

(222)

2,009

11.2 %

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Operating figures

20182

 

 

2017
(restated)1, 2

 

 

Higher/
(lower)

Available seat kilometres (ASK million)

324,808

 

 

306,185

 

 

6.1 %

Revenue passenger kilometres
(RPK million)

270,657

 

 

252,819

 

 

7.1 %

Seat factor (per cent)

83.3

 

 

82.6

 

 

0.7pts

Cargo tonne kilometres (CTK million)

5,713

 

 

5,762

 

 

(0.9)%

Passenger numbers (thousands)

112,920

 

 

104,829

 

 

7.7 %

Sold cargo tonnes (thousands)

702

 

 

701

 

 

0.2 %

Sectors

754,700

 

 

717,325

 

 

5.2 %

Block hours (hours)

2,207,374

 

 

2,100,089

 

 

5.1 %

Average manpower equivalent

64,734

 

 

63,422

 

 

2.1%

Aircraft in service

573

 

 

546

 

 

4.9 %

Passenger revenue per RPK (€ cents)

7.96

 

 

8.02

 

 

(0.8)%

Passenger revenue per ASK (€ cents)

6.63

 

 

6.63

 

 

0.1 %

Cargo revenue per CTK (€ cents)

20.53

 

 

19.65

 

 

4.5 %

Fuel cost per ASK (€ cents)

1.63

 

 

1.51

 

 

8.0 %

Non-fuel costs per ASK (€ cents)

4.89

 

 

5.00

 

 

(2.2)%

Total cost per ASK (€ cents)

6.52

 

 

6.51

 

 

0.2 %

1     Restated for new accounting standards IFRS 15 'Revenue from contracts with customers' and IFRS 9 'Financial instruments'; refer to note 33.

2     Financial ratios are before exceptional items.

Consolidated Income Statement

 

Three months to December 31

 

€ million

Before exceptional items
2018

Exceptional items

Total
2018

Before exceptional items
2017 (restated)1

Exceptional items

Total
2017
(restated)1

Higher/
(lower)

Passenger revenue

5,223

 

5,223

4,778

 

4,778

9.3 %

Cargo revenue

326

 

326

323

 

323

0.9 %

Other revenue

511

 

511

329

 

329

55.3 %

Total revenue

6,060

 

6,060

5,430

 

5,430

11.6 %

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Employee costs

1,223

134

1,357

1,178

(23)

1,155

3.8 %

Fuel, oil costs and emissions charges

1,349

 

1,349

1,145

 

1,145

17.8 %

Handling, catering and other operating costs

734

 

734

629

14

643

16.7 %

Landing fees and en-route charges

515

 

515

499

 

499

3.2 %

Engineering and other aircraft costs

543

 

543

405

19

424

34.1 %

Property, IT and other costs

240

2

242

259

7

266

(7.3)%

Selling costs

240

 

240

242

 

242

(0.8)%

Depreciation, amortisation and impairment

326

 

326

292

 

292

11.6 %

Aircraft operating lease costs

227

 

227

219

 

219

3.7 %

Currency differences

8

 

8

12

 

12

(33.3)%

Total expenditure on operations

5,405

136

5,541

4,880

17

4,897

10.8 %

Operating profit

655

(136)

519

550

(17)

533

19.1 %

Net non-operating costs

(70)

 

(70)

(40)

 

(40)

75.0 %

Profit before tax

585

(136)

449

510

(17)

493

14.7 %

Tax

(74)

8

(66)

(84)

3

(81)

(11.9)%

Profit after tax for the period

511

(128)

383

426

(14)

412

20.0 %

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Operating figures

20182

 

 

2017 (restated)1, 2

 

 

Higher/
(lower)

Available seat kilometres (ASK million)

80,465

 

 

74,768

 

 

7.6 %

Revenue passenger kilometres (RPK million)

65,612

 

 

61,078

 

 

7.4 %

Seat factor (per cent)

81.5

 

 

81.7

 

 

(0.2pts)

Cargo tonne kilometres (CTK million)

1,523

 

 

1,542

 

 

(1.2)%

Passenger numbers (thousands)

26,679

 

 

24,764

 

 

7.7 %

Sold cargo tonnes (thousands)

187

 

 

188

 

 

(0.3)%

Sectors

182,386

 

 

172,106

 

 

6.0 %

Block hours (hours)

540,988

 

 

507,938

 

 

6.5 %

Average manpower equivalent

64,296

 

 

62,196

 

 

3.2%

Passenger revenue per RPK (€ cents)

7.96

 

 

7.82

 

 

1.8 %

Passenger revenue per ASK (€ cents)

6.49

 

 

6.39

 

 

1.6 %

Cargo revenue per CTK (€ cents)

21.41

 

 

20.95

 

 

2.2 %

Fuel cost per ASK (€ cents)

1.68

 

 

1.53

 

 

9.5 %

Non-fuel costs per ASK (€ cents)

5.04

 

 

5.00

 

 

0.9 %

Total cost per ASK (€ cents)

6.72

 

 

6.53

 

 

2.9 %

1     Restated for new accounting standards IFRS 15 'Revenue from contracts with customers' and IFRS 9 'Financial instruments'; refer to note 33.

2     Financial ratios are before exceptional items.

Financial review

IATA market growths

The air traffic industry had another strong year. Economic growth is keeping traffic ahead of the industry's 6.1 per cent capacity increase with a slight net gain of 0.3 pts in passenger load factor.

In 2018, airline capacity growth in Europe was one of the highest regions. The growth was 5.8 per cent as it recovered from the impacts of terrorist attacks in 2016. The environment was competitive and passenger load factors increased both of which impacted yields. Europe recorded the highest passenger load factor for the year.

North America's airline capacity growth was 4.7 per cent during the year and the region retained a position of strong financial performance.

Latin America's airline capacity growth was higher than the total market average at 6.6 per cent and ahead of last year's growth of 5.5 per cent. The market environment began to turnaround in 2017 and showed some improvement in 2018, however it remained harsh. Passenger load factor in this region decreased and overall profitability decreased.

Africa was the weakest region for the airline industry with growth of only 1.0 per cent. Despite the low capacity increase, load factors improvement was relatively low and passenger load factor was the lowest of all the regions.

The Middle East's airline industry growth was moderate and lower than the market average. Passenger load factor performance deteriorated from a relatively low base with demand impacted by the political environment.

Airline capacity growth in the Asia Pacific region was high at 7.9 per cent with diverse performance across the region.

IATA market growths

Year to December 31, 2018

Capacity ASKs

Passenger load factor

Higher/
(lower)

Europe

5.8%

84.5

0.6 pts

North America

4.7%

83.8

0.2 pts

Latin America

6.6%

81.6

(0.3)pts

Africa

1.0%

71.4

1.0 pts

Middle East

4.9%

74.8

(0.6)pts

Asia Pacific

7.9%

81.5

0.5 pts

Total market

6.1%

81.9

0.3 pts

Source: IATA Air Passenger Market Analysis

IAG capacity

In 2018, IAG increased capacity by 6.1 per cent, including LEVEL, for the full year. Capacity was increased in all airlines and throughout each region except for Asia Pacific.

The increase partially reflects new longhaul routes at British Airways, Iberia and Aer Lingus and the full year impact of routes launched in 2017. In shorthaul, new routes were launched by LEVEL in Vienna, and frequencies in Domestic and European routes were added by Iberia and Vueling.

IAG passenger load factor reached its highest level since the creation of IAG at 83.3 points, 0.7 points higher than the previous year and 1.4 points higher than the IATA average.

Market segments

IAG capacity

Year to December 31,2018

ASKs higher/

(lower)

Passenger load factor

Higher/ (lower)

Domestic

9.1%

85.0

1.8 pts

Europe

6.2%

83.2

1.2 pts

North America

8.0%

82.3

0.0 pts

Latin America and

Caribbean

8.7%

84.7

0.7 pts

Africa, Middle East

and South Asia

0.8%

82.4

1.6 pts

Asia Pacific

0.0%

84.7

0.1 pts

Total network

6.1%

83.3

0.7 pts

Eurozone

Eurozone inflation reached 2.0 per cent, quantitative easing programmes substantially came to an end, and unemployment reduced throughout the year. However consumer confidence ended the year lower than it began, impacted by protests in France, reduction in the industrial production growth rate in Germany and deterioration in the Italian economy. While the Eurozone GDP grew 2.0 per cent, the airline industry's passenger capacity rate was 5.8 per cent.

IAG's European market, taken together with Domestic, is home to our airline hubs and represents our largest market. We grew slightly ahead of the airline industry average increasing the breadth and depth of our schedules, serving more cities and adding frequencies.

In IAG's Domestic markets capacity was higher by 9.1 per cent with increases at Vueling and Iberia. As part of its NEXT strategy, Vueling increased frequencies on existing routes and launched three new routes. Capacity in Iberia's domestic market was increased with growth in the Balearics and Canaries. Passenger load factor performance was strong, almost two points higher versus last year.

In the Domestic market, the Group's passenger unit revenues were up across all airlines. The Group's domestic performance improved throughout the year and benefited from the Spanish government subsidy to residents in the Balearic and Canaries Islands.

The Group's European capacity increased year on year. LEVEL Vienna started shorthaul services in July 2018 with 14 new destinations from the Austrian capital, including London, Barcelona and Paris. Iberia's capacity increased through higher frequencies in several routes, including Madrid to Milan, Berlin, Paris and Prague. Increases in Vueling came mainly from additional frequencies on routes from France and Italy to Spain. Load factor was also up 1.2 points.

In 2018, the Group's European markets continued to perform strongly with increases at British Airways, Vueling and Aer Lingus. Iberia's passenger unit revenues decreased in Europe following a year of quarter on quarter improvements and on a modest capacity increase.

North America

In 2018, US GDP grew 2.9 per cent which was ahead of last year and forecast. Growth accelerated over the year benefiting from tax rate reductions and lower unemployment supporting consumption. The airline industry's passenger capacity grew 4.7 per cent while IAG grew 8.0 per cent serving a new market segment (low cost longhaul), adding new destinations from Ireland, Spain and the UK and increasing frequencies.

IAG's North American market represents a significant part of the Group's capacity with over 30 per cent of total ASKs. Capacity was increased in British Airways, Iberia, and Aer Lingus. British Airways started operating two new routes, Nashville from London Heathrow and Toronto from Gatwick, as well as growth in several routes including New Orleans, Las Vegas, Boston and Los Angeles. Iberia's capacity increase came mainly from its new route to San Francisco and the full year impact of routes extended from seasonal services, as well as routes launched throughout 2017. Aer Lingus' North American capacity was increased with the launch of new routes to Philadelphia and Seattle and the full year impact of routes launched in 2017. LEVEL's growth reflects the full year impact of its longhaul routes from Paris. Seat factor for the region was maintained at 82.3 per cent. Despite the capacity increase, passenger numbers grew in line with capacity.

North America passenger unit revenues at ccy were broadly flat versus last year. Aer Lingus passenger unit revenues decreased slightly on a capacity increase of 17.2 per cent, while LEVEL expansion had a dilutive impact on the Group's passenger unit revenues due to its lower fares. British Airways and Iberia's performances improved versus last year from higher yields at British Airways and increases in passenger load factor at Iberia.

Latin America and Caribbean

Latin America GDP grew in line with last year but significantly below forecasts. Argentina re-entered recession while Venezuela's recession deepened and Brazil's growth rate was lower than expectations. The airline industry's passenger capacity grew 6.6 per cent while IAG grew 8.7 per cent however from a lower market share position. As with North America, IAG's growth included serving the low cost longhaul market, new destinations and additional frequencies.

IAG's capacity in Latin America and Caribbean was increased with LEVEL's new routes to Guadalupe and Martinique and the full year impact of routes launched in June 2017 from Barcelona. Iberia continued to increase frequencies to Mexico City during the year, continuing its growth from 2017 and adding frequencies to Santiago de Chile, Guatemala and El Salvador. British Airways increased capacity to Santiago de Chile, Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. Passenger load factor in this region improved and was again significantly higher than the industry average.

Latin America and Caribbean passenger unit revenues at ccy increased around 1.5 per cent, with significant improvements in the first half of the year offset by reductions in the latter half. Performance in South America was volatile with economies such as Argentina and Brazil impacted by the political uncertainty driving deterioration through the year. Peru, Ecuador and Colombia performed well. The Caribbean and Mexican routes also saw fluctuations but generally performed well.

Africa, Middle East and South Asia (AMESA)

AMESA capacity increased slightly in 2018 from British Airways' new routes to Durban and Seychelles, and additional capacity to Johannesburg and Marrakech. Iberia increased capacity in Marrakech, partially offset by the cancellation of services to Equatorial Guinea. Passenger load factor was strong and was 0.5 points higher than the industry average. The Group is growing at a slower pace than the airline industry average in these areas reflecting in part the challenging political environment and economic conditions.

Africa, Middle East and South Asia passenger unit revenue performance fluctuated across the routes. Improvements benefited in part from relatively flat capacity versus last year. British Airways passenger unit revenue was up at ccy and Iberia's African routes such as Dakar and Morocco performed well.

Asia Pacific

In Asia Pacific, the Group's capacity was flat versus 2017. Iberia's increased services were offset by decreases in British Airways' capacity. Passenger load factor remained broadly flat and continued to be among the highest in the IAG network. The Group is also growing at a slower pace in the Asia Pacific region reflecting in part the challenging competitive and regulatory environment.

Asia Pacific was broadly flat versus last year on flat capacity with mixed performance across the routes. While demand has been relatively stable industry capacity has risen significantly.

Revenue

€ million

Higher/(lower)

2018

Year over year at ccy

 Per ASK at ccy

Passenger revenue

21,549

8.6%

2.4%

Cargo revenue

1,173

7.2%

Other revenue

1,684

18.3%

Total revenue

24,406

9.2%

Passenger revenue

On a reported basis, passenger revenue for the Group rose 6.2 per cent versus the prior year, with 2.4 points of adverse currency, while capacity was increased 6.1 per cent. At constant currency ('ccy'), passenger unit revenue (passenger revenue per ASK) increased 2.4 per cent from higher yields (passenger revenue/revenue passenger kilometre) up 1.5 per cent and a 0.7 point rise in passenger load factor. At the airline level, passenger unit revenue at ccy increased versus last year at each of the Group's airlines. On a quarterly basis, the Group's passenger unit revenue at ccy was also positive in every quarter although at a slower pace as the year progressed.

The Group carried almost 113 million passengers an increase of 7.7 per cent from 2017, with passenger load factor improvement of 0.7 points for the Group and at four of the five airlines. Since April 2017, Net Promoter Score is being measured consistently for British Airways, Iberia, Vueling and Aer Lingus. The Group's Net Promoter Score for 2018 was 16.3 per cent a decrease of 0.5 points versus the reported figure last year (April to December). Product upgrades and service enhancements were well received by customers; however, these improvements were more than offset by the challenging Air Traffic Control environment. The ATC disruption impacted Vueling resulting in both Vueling and the Group missing its 2018 NPS target of 20. Iberia's 2018 score was broadly flat versus its target, while British Airways and Aer Lingus exceeded their 2018 targets.

Cargo revenue

The market in 2018 saw a strong start, but growth then slowed markedly as the year progressed. Cargo revenue for the period increased by 3.6 per cent, excluding currency 7.2 per cent. Volume measured in tonne kilometres (CTK) decreased by 0.9 per cent on a capacity increase of 3.8 per cent. Yield improved by 8.1 per cent at constant currency. Strategic focus continued to be on premium products, investing for growth and continuing to modernise the business. This included the investment in a new Constant Climate Centre in Madrid, a new Critical Service Centre in London with a specialised customer service team and an improving customer experience on IAGCargo.com.

Other revenue

Other revenue rose 15.1 per cent, 18.3 per cent at constant currency from increases in:

•   Iberia's third party maintenance (MRO) billings and handling activity,

•   BA Holidays bookings,

•   Avios revenues from higher points issuance and product redemptions, and

•   Rental revenues, primarily at John F Kennedy airport.

Total revenue for the Group rose 6.7 per cent with increases in passenger, cargo and other revenue. At ccy, total revenue was up 9.2 per cent, higher than the Group's ASK growth.

Expenditure before exceptional items

Employee costs

Employee costs increased 1.5 per cent before exceptional items for the year. At constant currency, employee unit costs improved 3.3 per cent with pay increases primarily linked to RPI, offset by efficiency and restructuring initiatives across the Group.

British Airways closed its New Airways Pension Scheme (NAPS) to future accrual and British Airways Retirement Plan (BARP) to future contributions from March 31, 2018. The schemes have been replaced by a flexible defined contribution scheme, the British Airways Pension Plan (BAPP). The changes resulted in a reduction in the NAPS IAS 19 defined benefit liability of €872 million, transitional arrangement cash costs of €192 million (recognised as an exceptional) and a reduction in current service cost.

Overall the average number of employees rose by 2.1 per cent for the Group bringing our average workforce to 64,734 and productivity increased 3.9 per cent with improvements at British Airways, Iberia, Vueling and Aer Lingus.

Employee costs

€ million

2018

Higher/(lower)

Year over year at ccy

 Per ASK at ccy

Employee costs

4,812

2.6%

(3.3)%

 

Productivity

Higher/(lower)

2018

Year over year

Productivity

5,018

3.9%

Average manpower equivalent

64,734

2.1%

Fuel, oil and emissions costs

Fuel, oil and emissions costs rose by 14.6 per cent in 2018 primarily from higher average fuel prices net of hedging, partially offset by a weaker USD and from management efficiencies. Average fuel price rose from approximately $520 per metric tonne in 2017 by 32 per cent to approximately $685 in 2018. The Group gained fuel efficiencies from new aircraft and from improved operational procedures implemented across the airlines. At ccy and on a unit basis, fuel costs were 12.5 per cent higher.

Fuel, oil and emissions costs

€ million

2018

Higher/(lower)

Year over year at ccy

 Per ASK at ccy

Fuel, oil costs and emissions charges

5,283

19.3%

12.5%

Supplier costs

Total supplier costs for the year increased 5.0 per cent with 1.5 points of positive currency impacts. At ccy and on a unit basis, supplier costs rose 0.4 per cent. In 2018, the Group's non-ASK related businesses, such as MRO, BA Holidays and Avios grew. This increased our supplier costs, in particular Handling, catering and other operating costs and Engineering and other aircraft costs with a corresponding increase in Other revenue.

Supplier costs

€ million

2018

Higher/(lower)

Year over year at ccy

 Per ASK at ccy

Supplier costs:

0.4%

Handling, catering and other operating costs

2,888

10.1%

Landing fees and en-route charges

2,184

3.0%

Engineering and other aircraft costs

1,828

7.1%

Property, IT and other costs

918

1.9%

Selling costs

1,046

8.2%

Currency differences

73

0.0%

British Airways' supplier unit costs at ccy were up slightly. Investments in customer, incremental BA Holiday costs, higher selling costs related to the new distribution model and inflation were mainly offset by lower engineering costs. Iberia supplier unit costs decreased with efficient growth and management initiatives offsetting increases in maintenance costs related to its third-party MRO business and investments in customer. Vueling supplier unit costs were adversely impacted by significant ATC disruption costs. Aer Lingus had a favourable supplier unit cost performance from cost saving initiatives and efficient growth.

By supplier cost category:

Handling, catering and other operating costs rose 8.0 per cent, excluding currency up 10.1 per cent. The year on year comparison is impacted by a €65 million charge in the base related to operational disruption at British Airways in 2017. Otherwise the Group's Handling, catering and other operating costs rose 12.8 per cent at ccy. Half of this increase can be attributed to volume, from a 7.7 per cent rise in passengers carried and from additional activity at BA Holidays. The Group continued its focus on improving the customer proposition by investing in lounges, catering and service delivery. Inflation increases in supplier contracts were partially offset by savings while disruption costs rose significantly. Air traffic control strikes and regulations impacted our operational performance increasing disruption costs throughout 2018, in particular Vueling's.

Landing fees and en-route charges were higher by 1.5 per cent, excluding currency up 3.0 per cent. Costs rose primarily from higher activity, with flying hours up 5.1 per cent and sectors flown up 5.2 per cent. Price increases were broadly net neutral in 2018.

Engineering and other aircraft costs increased 3.1 per cent, excluding currency up 7.1 per cent. Increases were driven by additional third party maintenance activity at Iberia (c.4.8 points) and from higher flying hours. These increases have been partially offset by contractual remedies recognised for an issue with the RollsRoyce Trent 1000 engines. British Airways received compensation for additional costs incurred due to the reduction in flying hours.

Property, IT and other costs were up 0.3 per cent, excluding currency up 1.9 per cent. The increase reflects higher IT and professional costs and inflation on rent and rates.

Selling costs increased 6.5 per cent, excluding currency up 8.2 per cent. Selling costs rose from higher volumes, point of sale mix and changes in the Group's distribution model. The Group launched a new distribution model in November 2017 increasing our selling costs with a corresponding rise in fares and more direct access to our customers.

Ownership costs

The Group's ownership costs were up 3.5 per cent, excluding currency up 5.7 per cent. The increase reflects higher depreciation charges for the Boeing 747 fleet from lower expected residual values and from new owned aircraft (4 Boeing 787s, 2 Airbus A350s, 3 Airbus A330s, 11 Airbus A320 family). The Group has retired its fully depreciated Boeing 767s. Operating lease costs rose mainly due to incremental wet lease costs incurred to operate the Monarch slots at London Gatwick airport and additional leased aircraft primarily Airbus A320s, A321s and A330s, including the aircraft for LEVEL.

Ownership costs

€ million

2018

Higher/(lower)

Year over year

 Per ASK at ccy

Ownership costs

2,144

5.7%

(0.3)%

Number of fleet

Number of fleet

Higher/(lower)

2018

Year over year

Shorthaul

380

6.4%

Longhaul

193

2.1%

573

4.9%

Non-fuel unit costs

At constant currency, total non-fuel unit costs decreased 0.8 per cent. Adjusted by the 'Other revenue' (MRO, BA Holidays, Avios product redemption) category in the income statement and currency, the reduction was 2.5 per cent. Adjusted non-fuel unit cost improved at British Airways, Iberia and Aer Lingus from efficient growth and management initiatives. At Vueling adjusted non-fuel unit costs rose, impacted by the challenging ATC environment increasing disruption costs significantly.

Exchange impact before exceptional items

Exchange rate movements are calculated by retranslating current year results at prior year exchange rates. The reported revenues and expenditures are impacted by translation currency from converting results from currencies other than euro to the Group's reporting currency of euro, primarily British Airways and Avios. From a transaction perspective, the Group performance is impacted by the fluctuation of exchange rates, primarily exposure to the pound sterling, euro and US dollar. The Group generates a surplus in most currencies in which it does business, except the US dollar, as capital expenditure, debt repayments and fuel purchases typically create a deficit which is managed and partially hedged. At constant currency, the Group's operating profit before exceptional items would have been €129 million higher.

The Group hedges its economic exposure from transacting in foreign currencies. The Group does not hedge the translation impact of reporting in euros.

€ million

2018

Translation impact

Transaction impact

Total exchange impact

Total exchange impact on revenue

(183)

(389)

(572)

Total exchange impact on operating expenditures

163

280

443

Total exchange impact on operating profit

(20)

(109)

(129)

Operating profit before exceptional items

In summary, the Group's operating profit before exceptional items for the year was €3,230 million, a €280 million improvement from last year. The Group's adjusted operating margin also improved 0.2 points to 14.4 per cent. These results reflect a strong revenue performance from a better macro-economic environment with improvements in our main strategic markets. Management continued to focus on customer proposition, operational resilience and delivery of cost savings. This was partially offset by higher costs from ATC disruption, while our nonfuel unit cost trend keeps improving from structural agreements on pensions and productivity. This performance reflects the Group's drive towards achieving a competitive cost base with improved productivity and management initiatives, aligned with an improved focus in customer satisfaction, brand value and resilience of our operational model.

Financial performance by Brand

 

British Airways

£ million

Aer Lingus
€ million

2018

Higher/ (lower)

2018

Higher/ (lower)

ASKs

184,547

2.5%

29,030

10.0%

Seat factor (per cent)

82.5

0.7pts

81.0

(0.1)pts

 

 

 

 

 

Passenger revenue

11,620

5.2%

1,952

8.6%

Cargo revenue

769

4.3%

54

14.9%

Other revenue

631

18.4%

14

7.7%

Total revenue

13,020

5.7%

2,020

8.8%

Fuel, oil costs and emissions charges

2,927

14.7%

382

20.9%

Employee costs

2,535

(1.5%)

373

8.1%

Supplier costs

4,586

2.8%

774

2.7%

EBITDAR

2,972

9.0%

491

11.1%

Ownership costs

1,020

4.2%

186

6.9%

Operating profit before exceptional items

1,952

11.6%

305

13.8%

Adjusted operating margin

15.6%

0.8pts

16.8%

0.6pts

 





Passenger yield (£ pence or € cents/RPK)

7.64

1.9%

8.30

(1.1%)

Unit passenger revenue (£ pence or € cents/ASK)

6.30

2.7%

6.73

(1.2%)

Total unit revenue (£ pence or € cents/ASK)

7.06

3.2%

6.96

(1.2%)

Fuel unit cost (£ pence or € cents/ASK)

1.59

11.9%

1.31

9.8%

Non-fuel unit costs (£ pence or € cents/ASK)

4.41

(0.9)%

4.59

(4.8%)

Total unit cost (£ pence or € cents/ASK)

6.00

2.2%

5.91

(1.9%)

British Airways operating profit was £1,952 million, excluding exceptional items, up £203 million over the prior year on a capacity increase of 2.5 per cent.

Passenger unit revenues rose for the year from higher passenger load factors and yields. Yields improved with strong business sector performance.

British Airways' non-fuel unit costs improved during the year; savings were made in several areas including the head office function, engineering through outsourcing and property rationalisation.

Overall, British Airways' adjusted operating margin improved 0.8 points to 15.6 per cent.

Aer Lingus operating profit was €305 million, a record performance and an improvement of €37 million over last year. Capacity increased 10.0 per cent from additional flying to new routes such as Philadelphia and Seattle.

Despite the significant increase in capacity, Aer Lingus' adjusted operating margin rose 0.6 points to 16.8 per cent. Passenger unit revenues decreased at outturn rates from lower yields, while non-fuel unit costs improved.

Aer Lingus achieved significant cost savings through efficient growth with higher productivity and from cost initiatives. This included areas such as procurement and handling.

Financial performance by Brand

Iberia
€ million

Vueling
€ million

2018

Higher/ (lower)

2018

Higher/ (lower)

ASKs

68,179

7.1%

37,431

8.9%

Seat factor (per cent)

85.5

1.4pts

85.4

0.7pts

 

 

 

 

Passenger revenue

3,765

5.9%

2,377

13.0%

Cargo revenue

251

3.7%

-

-

Other revenue

1,166

9.6%

21

(8.7%)

Total revenue

5,182

6.6%

2,398

12.7%

Fuel, oil costs and emissions charges

1,023

10.5%

489

14.3%

Employee costs

1,091

3.6%

278

19.3%

Supplier costs

2,173

6.2%

1,160

15.0%

EBITDAR

895

7.3%

471

3.1%

Ownership costs

458

0.0%

271

0.7%

Operating profit before exceptional items

437

16.2%

200

6.4%

Adjusted operating margin

10.0%

0.4pts

11.8%

(1.0)pts

 

 

 

 

Passenger yield (€ cents/RPK)

6.50

(2.8)%

7.43

2.9%

Unit passenger revenue (€ cents/ASK)

5.55

(1.1)%

6.35

3.8%

Total unit revenue (€ cents/ASK)

7.60

(0.3)%

6.41

3.6%

Fuel unit cost (€ cents/ASK)

1.50

3.2%

1.31

4.9%

Non-fuel unit costs (€ cents/ASK)

5.46

(2.2)%

4.57

4.0%

Total unit cost (€ cents/ASK)

6.96

(1.1)%

5.87

4.2%

Vueling's operating profit was €200 million an increase of €12 million despite facing significant operational disruption from ATC regulations and strikes. Its adjusted operating margin of 11.8 per cent, was 1.0 points down versus last year.

Vueling developed its network strategy throughout 2018 and has strengthened its position in key markets. Demand in these markets remained strong, passenger unit revenues, passenger load factors and yields improved versus last year.

Vueling's non-fuel unit costs increased significantly primarily from ATC disruption. Vueling's NEXT programme continued to target operational improvements and cost saving initiatives to address the challenging ATC environment, however operating margin suffered.

Iberia's operating profit before exceptional items was €437 million, up by €61 million versus last year, achieving an adjusted operating margin of 10.0 per cent. Capacity for the year was up 9.6 per cent, with a reduction in passenger unit revenue from lower yields partially offset by higher passenger load factor.

On the cost side, non-fuel unit costs reduced. Employee unit costs and productivity improved through efficiency initiatives as part of Iberia's Plan de Futuro II.

In 2018, Iberia's Other revenue also increased by 9.6 per cent, primarily from its MRO business.

Exceptional items

For a full list of exceptional items, refer to note 4 of the Financial statements. Below is a summary of the significant exceptional items recorded.

During the year, the Group recognised an exceptional net operating credit of €448 million reflecting:

€678 million net pension credit following the amendments to British Airways' NAPS and BARP pension plans noted previously, reducing the defined benefit liability offset by the related cash costs

€136 million restructuring costs related to British Airways' transformation plan aimed to develop a more efficient and cost effective structure, and

€94 million charge in employee costs to equalise the effects of Guaranteed Minimum Pensions at British Airways.

In 2017, the Group recognised an exceptional charge of €288 million related to restructuring costs at British Airways and Iberia.

Non-operating costs and taxation

Net non-operating costs after exceptional items were €191 million, up from €181 million last year. In 2018, the Group recognised a net financing pension credit relating to defined benefit schemes compared to a charge in 2017. Closure of the British Airways NAPS to future accrual resulted in an accounting surplus and a net financing credit. This €55 million improvement was offset by a €57 million swing in net foreign exchange on the retranslation of monetary non-current assets and liabilities.

Taxation

The vast majority of the Group's activities are taxed in the countries of effective management of the main operations - UK, Spain and Ireland, with corporation tax rates during 2018 of 19 per cent, 25 per cent and 12.5 per cent respectively. The Group's effective tax rate for the year was 16.9 per cent (2017: 19.0 per cent) and the tax charge after exceptional items was €590 million (2017: €472 million).

The Group continues to offset prior year tax losses and other tax assets against its current year taxable profit. In 2018 the Group paid corporation taxes of €343 million (2017: €237 million).

Profit after tax and Earnings per share (EPS)

Profit after tax before exceptional items was €2,481 million, up 11.2 per cent. The increase reflects a strong operating profit performance with higher unit revenues and lower non-fuel unit costs more than offsetting the significant rise in fuel unit costs. Fully diluted earnings per share before exceptional items is one of our key performance indicators and increased by 15.1 per cent also benefitting from the positive impact of the share buyback programme.

Profit after tax and exceptional items was €2,897 million (2017: €2,009 million), up 44.2 per cent.

Dividends

The Board is proposing a final dividend to shareholders of 16.5 euro cents per share, which brings the full year dividend to 31 euro cents per share. Given the Group's strong cash position the Board is also proposing a special dividend of 35 euro cents per share, returning approximately €700 million to shareholders. Subject to shareholder approval at the Annual General Meeting, the final and special dividends will be paid, on July 8, 2019 to shareholders on the register on July 5, 2019.

Dividend policy statement

In determining the level of dividend in any year, the Board considers several factors, including:

•   Earnings of the Group;

•   On-going cash requirements and prospects of the Group and its operating companies;

•   Levels of distributable reserves by operating company and efficiency of upstreaming options;

•   Dividend coverage; and

•   Its intention to distribute regular returns to its shareholders in the medium and long-term.

The Company received distributions from each of the four main airlines in 2018, although due to accumulated losses in certain companies they were not all recorded as distributable income. Distributions may trigger additional pension contributions if higher than pre-agreed thresholds, see note 30 of the Financial statements.

Notwithstanding these factors, the Company's distributable reserves position was strong, with €5.7 billion available at December 31, 2018 (2017: €6.1 billion).

Liquidity and capital risk management

IAG's objectives when managing capital are to safeguard the Group's ability to continue as a going concern, to maintain an optimal capital structure to reduce the cost of capital and to provide sustainable returns to shareholders. In November 2018, S+P and Moody's assigned IAG with a longterm investment grade credit rating with stable outlook.

The Group monitors capital using adjusted net debt to EBITDAR and liquidity. In 2018, the Group's adjusted net debt to EBITDAR increased slightly to 1.6 from 1.5 in 2017, although well within an acceptable range. EBITDAR improved and adjusted net debt increased. Adjusted net debt rose by €596 million to €8,355 million reflecting a lower cash position from the repayment of perpetual securities and slightly higher long-term borrowings from an increase in debt for fleet. EBITDAR rose €352 million versus last year reflecting the Group's profitable growth as the EBITDAR margin increased 0.1 pts with ASKs up 6.1 per cent.

The Group's equity free cash flow (EqFCF) was €1,801 million in 2018, lower than last year by €819 million and lower than our average long-term planning goals, impacted by the timing of CAPEX. EBITDA generation was strong at €4,484 million while net CAPEX was high at €2,228 million.

In 2018, the Group's net CAPEX included delivery of thirty-two new aircraft, five Boeing 787s, two Airbus A350s, four Airbus A330s and 21 Airbus from the A320 family. This capital expenditure has been partially offset by €574 million of proceeds from the sale and leaseback of thirteen new aircraft (ten Airbus A320 family, one Boeing 787 and two Airbus A330). In 2017, the Group took delivery of 10 new aircraft, partially offset by €287 million of proceeds from the sale and leaseback of seven new aircraft.

During the year, British Airways secured a sale and leaseback by way of a $609 million EETC bond issue to fund aircraft deliveries. The bonds were combined with Japanese Operating Leases with Call Options ("JOLCO") of $259 million. The total sum raised was $868 million. The transaction includes Class AA and Class A Certificates with an underlying collateral pool consisting of 11 aircraft.

Movements in Working capital and other non-cash generated €270 million in free cash flow (2017: €623 million) primarily from the Group's growth with higher sales in advance of carriage and impacted by the timing of prepayments.

Pensions and restructuring reflect payments made to the British Airways APS and NAPS pension plan schemes and restructuring payments for British Airways' and Iberia's transformation plans. In 2018, a €182 million onetime payment was made in relation to the closure of the NAPS scheme to future accrual.

In 2018, the cash Dividend paid reflects the 2017 final dividend and the 2018 interim dividend.

Cash flow

€ million

2018

2017

Movement

EBITDAR before exceptional items

5,374

5,022

352

Rentals

(890)

(888)

(2)

EBITDA before exceptional items

4,484

4,134

350

Net interest

(112)

(93)

(19)

Taxation

(343)

(237)

(106)

Acquisition of PPE and intangible assets

(2,802)

(1,490)

(1,312)

Sale of PPE and intangible assets

574

306

268

Equity free cash flow

1,801

2,620

(819)

Working capital and other non-cash

270

623

(353)

Pensions and restructuring

(1,063)

(914)

(149)

Proceeds from long-term
borrowings

1,078

178

900

Repayments of long-term
borrowings

(1,099)

(973)

(126)

Dividend paid

(577)

(512)

(65)

Share buyback

(500)

(500)

-

Other investing

61

72

(11)

Other financing

(312)

(21)

(291)

Cash (outflow)/inflow

(341)

573

(914)

Opening cash and deposits

6,676

6,428

248

Net foreign exchange

(61)

(325)

264

Cash and deposits

6,274

6,676

(402)

 

€ million

2018

2017

Higher/ (lower)

British Airways

2,780

3,182

(402)

Iberia

1,191

1,167

24

Aer Lingus

891

1,025

(134)

Vueling

564

681

(117)

IAG and other Group companies

848

621

227

Cash and deposits

6,274

6,676

(402)

During the year IAG carried out a second share buyback programme as part of the corporate finance strategy to return cash to shareholders while reinvesting in the business and managing leverage. The programme total was €500 million (2017: €500 million) and IAG acquired 65,956,660 ordinary shares (2017: 74,999,449), which were subsequently cancelled. The Group has returned over €1 billion to shareholders in 2018 and €2.7 billion since 2015.

Taking these factors into consideration, the Group's cash outflow for the year was €341 million and after net foreign exchange differences, the decrease in cash net of exchange was €402 million. Each operating company holds adequate levels of cash with balances exceeding 20 per cent of revenues, sufficient to meet obligations as they fall due.

Net debt and adjusted net debt

Net debt

€ million

2018

2017

Higher / (lower)

Debt

(7,331)

(8,515)

(1,184)

Cash and cash equivalents and interest bearing deposits

6,676

6,428

248

Net debt at January 1

(655)

(2,087)

(1,432)

(Decrease)/increase in cash net of exchange

(402)

248

(650)

Net cash outflow from repayments of debt and lease financing

1,099

973

126

New borrowings and finance leases

(1,078)

(178)

(900)

Decrease/(increase) in net debt from regular financing

21

795

(774)

Exchange and other noncash movements

(199)

389

(588)

Net debt at December 31

(1,235)

(655)

(580)

Capitalised aircraft lease costs

(7,120)

(7,104)

16

Adjusted net debt at December 31

(8,355)

(7,759)

596

The Group's net debt position increased by €580 million reflecting a reduction in cash, adverse exchange and a net neutral impact from regular financing with repayments during the year offsetting new borrowings.

Off balance sheet arrangements and capital commitments

The Group has entered into commercial leases on certain property and equipment but primarily for aircraft. Contracts range in duration for up to 13 years for aircraft with total payments of €8,664 million (2017: €7,642 million); see note 23 for further details on the timing. The Group's adjusted net debt metric includes an estimation for the debt related to the aircraft operating leases ('capitalised aircraft lease costs') by taking the current year's aircraft operating lease cost multiplied by 8.

Capital expenditure authorised and contracted for amounted to €10,831 million (2017: €12,137 million) for the Group. Most of this is in US dollars and includes commitments until 2023 for 92 aircraft from the Airbus A320 family, 12 Boeing 787s, 4 Boeing 777s, 41 Airbus A350s, and 4 Airbus A330s.

Strategic framework

IAG's mission is to be the leading international airline group. This means we will:

•   Win the customer through service and value across our global network;

•   Deliver higher returns to our shareholders through leveraging cost and revenue opportunities across the Group;

•   Attract and develop the best people in the industry;

•   Provide a platform for quality international airlines, leaders in their markets, to participate in consolidation; and

•   Retain the distinct cultures and brands of the individual airlines.

By accomplishing our mission, IAG will help to shape the future of the industry, set new standards of excellence and provide sustainability, security and growth.

 IAG's strategic priorities are as follows:

•   Strengthening a portfolio of world-class brands and operations

•   Growing global leadership positions

•   Enhancing the common integrated platform

Principal risks and uncertainties

During the year we have continued to embed our risk framework, which includes processes to identify, assess and manage risks.  The principal risks and uncertainties affecting us, detailed on pages 29 to 34 of the Annual Report and Accounts 2017, remain relevant. In general, the Group's strategic risk was stable during the year. The Group continued to evaluate and prepare for the potential changes following the UK's decision to leave the EU. As we move into 2019, there is continued political uncertainty, fuel price volatility and the ongoing risk of impact to our operations and reputation as the frequency, nature and sophistication of cyber attacks increases.

Overall, the Group maintains flexibility in its fleet plans with the ability to defer, to exercise options and to negotiate different renewal terms. IAG does not have any other off-balance sheet financing arrangements.

International Consolidated Airlines Group S.A.

Unaudited full year Consolidated Financial Statements

January 1, 2018 - December 31, 2018

Consolidated income statement

 

 

Year to December 31

€ million

Note

Before
exceptional
items
2018

Exceptional
items

Total
2018

Before
exceptional
items
2017 (restated)1

Exceptional
items

Total
2017 (restated)1

Passenger revenue

 

21,549


21,549

20,285

 

20,285

Cargo revenue

 

1,173


1,173

1,132

 

1,132

Other revenue

 

1,684


1,684

1,463

 

1,463

Total revenue

3

24,406


24,406

22,880

 

22,880

Employee costs

4, 7

4,812

(460)

4,352

4,740

248

4,988

Fuel, oil costs and emissions charges

 

5,283


5,283

4,610

 

4,610

Handling, catering and other operating costs

4

2,888


2,888

2,673

14

2,687

Landing fees and en-route charges

 

2,184


2,184

2,151

 

2,151

Engineering and other aircraft costs

4

1,828


1,828

1,773

19

1,792

Property, IT and other costs

4

918

12

930

915

7

922

Selling costs

 

1,046


1,046

982

 

982

Depreciation, amortisation and impairment

5

1,254


1,254

1,184

 

1,184

Aircraft operating lease costs

5

890


890

888

 

888

Currency differences

 

73


73

14

 

14

Total expenditure on operations

 

21,176

(448)

20,728

19,930

288

20,218

Operating profit

3

3,230

448

3,678

2,950

(288)

2,662

 

 




 

 

 

Finance costs

8

(231)


(231)

(225)

 

(225)

Finance income

8

41


41

45

 

45

Net financing credit/(charge) relating to pensions

8

27


27

(28)

 

(28)

Net currency retranslation (charges)/credits

 

(19)


(19)

38

 

38

Other non-operating charges

8

(9)


(9)

(11)

 

(11)

Total net non-operating costs

 

(191)


(191)

(181)

 

(181)

Profit before tax

 

3,039

448

3,487

2,769

(288)

2,481

Tax

9

(558)

(32)

(590)

(538)

66

(472)

Profit after tax for the year

 

2,481

416

2,897

2,231

(222)

2,009


 




 

 

 

Attributable to:

 




 

 

 

Equity holders of the parent

 

2,469


2,885

2,211

 

1,989

Non-controlling interest

 

12


12

20

 

20

 

 

2,481


2,897

2,231

 

2,009


 




 

 

 


 




 

 

 

Basic earnings per share (€ cents)

10

122.1

 

142.7

105.9

 

95.2

Diluted earnings per share (€ cents)

10

117.7

 

137.4

102.2

 

92.0

1     Restated for new accounting standards IFRS 15 'Revenue from contracts with customers' and IFRS 9 'Financial instruments'; refer to note 33.

 

Consolidated statement of other comprehensive income



Year to December 31

€ million

Note

2018

2017
(restated)1

Items that may be reclassified subsequently to net profit

 

 

 

Cash flow hedges:

 

 

 

Fair value movements in equity

29

(517)

101

Reclassified and reported in net profit

29

(480)

28

Fair value movements on cost of hedging

 

13

(41)


 



Currency translation differences

29

(80)

(127)

 

 



Items that will not be reclassified to net profit

 



Fair value movements on other equity investments

 

(5)

9

Fair value movements on cash flow hedges

 

26

-

Remeasurements of post-employment benefit obligations

29

(696)

739

Total other comprehensive (loss)/income for the year, net of tax

 

(1,739)

709

Profit after tax for the year

 

2,897

2,009


 



Total comprehensive income for the year

 

1,158

2,718

 

 



Total comprehensive income is attributable to:

 



Equity holders of the parent

 

1,146

2,698

Non-controlling interest

29

12

20

 

 

1,158

2,718

1     Restated for new accounting standards IFRS 15 'Revenue from contracts with customers' and IFRS 9 'Financial instruments'; refer to note 33.

Items in the consolidated Statement of other comprehensive income above are disclosed net of tax.

Consolidated balance sheet

€ million

Note

December 31,
2018

December 31,
2017 (restated)1

January 1,
2017 (restated)1

Non-current assets

 

 

 

 

Property, plant and equipment

12

12,437

11,846

12,227

Intangible assets

14

3,198

3,018

3,037

Investments accounted for using the equity method

15

31

30

29

Other equity investments

16

80

79

73

Employee benefit assets

30

1,129

1,023

1,028

Derivative financial instruments

26

221

145

169

Deferred tax assets

9

536

523

561

Other non-current assets

17

309

376

499

 

 

17,941

17,040

17,623

Current assets

 




Non-current assets held for sale

 

-

-

38

Inventories

 

509

432

458

Trade receivables

17

1,597

1,463

1,370

Other current assets

17

1,175

958

899

Current tax receivable

9

383

258

228

Derivative financial instruments

26

155

405

329

Other current interest-bearing deposits

18

2,437

3,384

3,091

Cash and cash equivalents

18

3,837

3,292

3,337

 

 

10,093

10,192

9,750

Total assets

 

28,034

27,232

27,373

 

 




Shareholders' equity

 




Issued share capital

27

996

1,029

1,066

Share premium

27

6,022

6,022

6,105

Treasury shares

27

(68)

(77)

(96)

Other reserves

29

(236)

(348)

(2,149)

Total shareholders' equity

 

6,714

6,626

4,926

Non-controlling interest

29

6

307

308

Total equity

 

6,720

6,933

5,234

Non-current liabilities

 




Interest-bearing long-term borrowings

22

6,633

6,401

7,589

Employee benefit obligations

30

289

792

2,363

Deferred tax liability

9

453

526

110

Provisions for liabilities and charges

24

2,268

2,113

1,987

Derivative financial instruments

26

423

114

20

Other long-term liabilities

21

198

222

238

 

 

10,264

10,168

12,307

Current liabilities

 




Current portion of long-term borrowings

22

876

930

926

Trade and other payables

19

3,959

3,723

3,266

Deferred revenue on ticket sales

20

4,835

4,742

4,680

Derivative financial instruments

26

656

111

88

Current tax payable

9

165

78

101

Provisions for liabilities and charges

24

559

547

771

 

 

11,050

10,131

9,832

Total liabilities

 

21,314

20,299

22,139

Total equity and liabilities

 

28,034

27,232

27,373

1     Restated for new accounting standards IFRS 15 'Revenue from contracts with customers' and IFRS 9 'Financial instruments'; refer to note 33.

Consolidated cash flow statement


 

Year to December 31

€ million

Note

2018

2017 (restated)1

Cash flows from operating activities

 

 

 

Operating profit after exceptional items

 

3,678

2,662

Depreciation, amortisation and impairment

5

1,254

1,184

Movement in working capital

 

(64)

647

Increase in trade receivables, prepayments, inventories and other current assets

 

(650)

(287)

Increase in trade and other payables, deferred revenue on ticket sales and current liabilities

 

586

934

Payments related to restructuring

24

(220)

(248)

Employer contributions to pension schemes2

30

(898)

(899)

Pension scheme service costs

30

55

233

Provision and other non-cash movements

 

(114)

264

Interest paid

 

(149)

(122)

Interest received

 

37

29

Tax paid

 

(343)

(237)

Net cash flows from operating activities

 

3,236

3,513

 

 



Cash flows from investing activities

 



Acquisition of property, plant and equipment and intangible assets

 

(2,802)

(1,490)

Sale of property, plant and equipment and intangible assets

 

574

306

Proceeds from sale of investments

 

-

17

Decrease/(increase) in other current interest-bearing deposits

 

924

(432)

Other investing movements

 

61

55

Net cash flows from investing activities

 

(1,243)

(1,544)

 

 



Cash flows from financing activities

 



Proceeds from long-term borrowings

 

1,078

178

Repayment of borrowings

 

(275)

(148)

Repayment of finance leases

 

(824)

(825)

Acquisition of treasury shares

 

(500)

(500)

Distributions made to holders of perpetual securities

 

(312)

(21)

Dividend paid

 

(577)

(512)

Net cash flows from financing activities

 

(1,410)

(1,828)

 

 



Net increase in cash and cash equivalents

 

583

141

Net foreign exchange differences

 

(38)

(186)

Cash and cash equivalents at 1 January

 

3,292

3,337

Cash and cash equivalents at year end

18

3,837

3,292

 

 



Interest-bearing deposits maturing after more than three months

18

2,437

3,384

 

 



Cash, cash equivalents and other interest-bearing deposits

18

6,274

6,676

1     Restated for new accounting standards IFRS 15 'Revenue from contracts with customers' and IFRS 9 'Financial instruments'; refer to note 33.

2     Includes transitional arrangement cash costs associated with changes to the British Airways pension schemes; refer to note 4.

Consolidated statement of changes in equity

For the year to December 31, 2018

€ million

Issued share capital (note 27)

Share premium (note 27)

Treasury shares
(note 27)

Other reserves (note 29)

Retained earnings

Total shareholders' equity

Non-controlling interest
(note 29)

Total equity

January 1, 2018 (restated)

1,029

6,022

(77)

(2,626)

2,278

6,626

307

6,933

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Profit for the year

-

-

-

-

2,885

2,885

12

2,897










Other comprehensive income for the year









Cash flow hedges reclassified and reported in net profit:









Passenger revenue

-

-

-

77

-

77

-

77

Fuel and oil costs

-

-

-

(565)

-

(565)

-

(565)

Currency differences

-

-

-

4

-

4

-

4

Finance costs

-

-

-

4

-

4

-

4

Net change in fair value of cash flow hedges

-

-

-

(491)

-

(491)

-

(491)

Net change in fair value of equity investments

-

-

-

(5)

-

(5)

-

(5)

Net change in fair value of cost of hedging

-

-

-

13

-

13

-

13

Currency translation differences

-

-

-

(80)

-

(80)

-

(80)

Remeasurements of post-employment benefit obligations

-

-

-

-

(696)

(696)

-

(696)

Total comprehensive income for the year

-

-

-

(1,043)

2,189

1,146

12

1,158










Hedges reclassified and reported in property, plant and equipment

-

-

-

(1)

-

(1)

-

(1)

Cost of share-based payments

-

-

-

-

31

31

-

31

Vesting of share-based payment schemes

-

-

9

-

(15)

(6)

-

(6)

Acquisition of treasury shares

-

-

(500)

-

-

(500)

-

(500)

Dividend

-

-

-

-

(582)

(582)

-

(582)

Cancellation of share capital

(33)

-

500

33

(500)

-

-

-

Dividend of a subsidiary

-

-

-

-

-

-

(1)

(1)

Transfer between reserves

-

-

-

77

(77)

-

-

-

Distributions made to holders of perpetual securities

-

-

-

-

-

-

(312)

(312)

December 31, 2018

996

6,022

(68)

(3,560)

3,324

6,714

6

6,720

 

Consolidated statement of changes in equity

For the year to December 31, 2017

€ million

Issued share capital (note 27)

Share premium (note 27)

Treasury shares
(note 27)

Other reserves (note 29)

Retained earnings

Total shareholders' equity

Non-controlling interest
(note 29)

Total
equity

January 1, 2017

1,066

6,105

(96)

(2,671)

952

5,356

308

5,664

Restatement for adoption of new standards

-

-

-

38

(468)

(430)

-

(430)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

January 1, 2017 (restated)

1,066

6,105

(96)

(2,633)

484

4,926

308

5,234

Profit for the year

-

-

-

-

1,989

1,989

20

2,009










Other comprehensive income for the year









Cash flow hedges reclassified and reported in net profit:









Passenger revenue

-

-

-

84

-

84

-

84

Fuel and oil costs

-

-

-

(38)

-

(38)

-

(38)

Currency differences

-

-

-

(18)

-

(18)

-

(18)

Net change in fair value of cash flow hedges

-

-

-

101

-

101

-

101

Net change in fair value of equity investments

-

-

-

9

-

9

-

9

Net change in fair value of cost of hedging

-

-

-

(41)

-

(41)

-

(41)

Currency translation differences

-

-

-

(127)

-

(127)

-

(127)

Remeasurements of post-employment benefit obligations

-

-

-

-

739

739

-

739

Total comprehensive income for the year

-

-

-

(30)

2,728

2,698

20

2,718










Cost of share-based payments

-

-

-

-

34

34

-

34

Vesting of share-based payment schemes

-

-

19

-

(33)

(14)

-

(14)

Acquisition of treasury shares

-

-

(500)

-

-

(500)

-

(500)

Dividend

-

-

-

-

(518)

(518)

-

(518)

Cancellation of share capital

(37)

-

500

37

(500)

-

-

-

Dividend of a subsidiary

-

-

-

-

-

-

(1)

(1)

Transfer between reserves

-

(83)

-

-

83

-

-

-

Distributions made to holders of perpetual securities

-

-

-

-

-

-

(20)

(20)

December 31, 2017

1,029

6,022

(77)

(2,626)

2,278

6,626

307

6,933

NOTES TO THE consolidated financial statements

For the year to December 31, 2018

1 Background and general information

International Consolidated Airlines Group S.A. (hereinafter 'International Airlines Group', 'IAG' or the 'Group') is a leading European airline group, formed to hold the interests of airline and ancillary operations. IAG is a Spanish company registered in Madrid and was incorporated on April 8, 2010. On January 21, 2011 British Airways Plc and Iberia Líneas Aéreas de España S.A. Operadora (hereinafter 'British Airways' and 'Iberia' respectively) completed a merger transaction becoming the first two airlines of the Group. Vueling Airlines S.A. ('Vueling') was acquired on April 26, 2013, and Aer Lingus Group Plc ('Aer Lingus') on August 18, 2015. A list of the subsidiaries of the Group is included in the Group investments section.

IAG shares are traded on the London Stock Exchange's main market for listed securities and also on the stock exchanges of Madrid, Barcelona, Bilbao and Valencia (the 'Spanish Stock Exchanges'), through the Spanish Stock Exchanges Interconnection System (Mercado Continuo Español).

2 Significant accounting policies

Basis of preparation

The consolidated financial statements of the Group have been prepared in accordance with the International Financial Reporting Standards as endorsed by the European Union (IFRSs as endorsed by the EU). The consolidated financial statements herein are not the Group's statutory accounts and are unaudited. The consolidated financial statements are rounded to the nearest million unless otherwise stated. These financial statements have been prepared on a historical cost convention except for certain financial assets and liabilities, including derivative financial instruments and other equity investments that are measured at fair value. The carrying value of recognised assets and liabilities that are subject to fair value hedges are adjusted to record changes in the fair values attributable to the risks that are being hedged. In order to improve the presentation of the Income statement, certain non-operating items have been aggregated into a new line, 'Other non-operating (charges)/credits', with further analysis provided in note 8 to the accounts.

The Group's financial statements for the year to December 31, 2018 were authorised for issue, and approved by the Board of Directors on February 27, 2019.

The Directors have considered the business activities, the Group's principal risks and uncertainties, and the Group's financial position, including cash flows, liquidity position and available committed facilities. The Directors consider that the Group has adequate resources to remain in operation for the foreseeable future and have therefore continued to adopt the going concern basis in preparing the financial statements.

Consolidation

The Group financial statements include the financial statements of the Company and its subsidiaries, each made up to December 31, together with the attributable share of results and reserves of associates and joint ventures, adjusted where appropriate to conform to the Group's accounting policies.

Subsidiaries are consolidated from the date of their acquisition, which is the date on which the Group obtains control and continue to be consolidated until the date that such control ceases. Control exists when the Group is exposed to, or has rights to, variable returns from its involvement with the entity and has the ability to affect those returns through its power over the entity.

The Group applies the acquisition method to account for business combinations. The consideration paid is the fair value of the assets transferred, the liabilities incurred and the equity interests issued by the Group. Identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed in a business combination are measured initially at their fair values at the acquisition date. Non-controlling interests represent the portion of profit or loss and net assets in subsidiaries that are not held by the Group and are presented separately within equity in the consolidated Balance sheet. Acquisition-related costs are expensed as incurred.

If the business combination is achieved in stages, the acquisition date fair value of the acquirer's previously held equity interest in the acquiree is remeasured to fair value at the acquisition date through the Income statement.

Goodwill is initially measured as the excess of the aggregate of the consideration transferred and the fair value of non-controlling interest over the net identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed.

All intra-group account balances, including intra-group profits, are eliminated in preparing the consolidated financial statements.

Segmental reporting

Operating segments are reported in a manner consistent with how resource allocation decisions are made by the chief operating decision-maker. The chief operating decision-maker, who is responsible for resource allocation and assessing performance of the operating segments, has been identified as the IAG Management Committee.

Foreign currency translation

a Functional and presentation currency

Items included in the financial statements of each of the Group's entities are measured using the functional currency, being the currency of the primary economic environment in which the entity operates. In particular, British Airways and Avios have a functional currency of pound sterling. The Group's consolidated financial statements are presented in euros, which is the Group's presentation currency.

b Transactions and balances

Transactions in foreign currencies are initially recorded in the functional currency using the rate of exchange prevailing on the date of the transaction. Monetary foreign currency balances are translated into the functional currency at the rates ruling at the balance sheet date. Foreign exchange gains and losses resulting from the settlement of such transactions and from the translation at balance sheet exchange rates of monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are recognised in the Income statement, except where hedge accounting is applied. Foreign exchange gains and losses arising on the retranslation of monetary assets and liabilities classified as non-current on the Balance sheet are recognised within 'Net currency retranslation (charges)/credits' in the Income statement. All other gains and losses arising on the retranslation of monetary assets and liabilities are recognised in operating profit.

c Group companies

The net assets of foreign operations are translated into euros at the rate of exchange ruling at the balance sheet date. Profits and losses of such operations are translated into euros at average rates of exchange during the year. The resulting exchange differences are taken directly to a separate component of equity (Currency translation reserve) until all or part of the interest is sold, when the relevant portion of the cumulative exchange difference is recognised in the Income statement.

Property, plant and equipment

Property, plant and equipment is held at cost. The Group has a policy of not revaluing property, plant and equipment. Depreciation is calculated to write off the cost less the estimated residual value on a straight-line basis, over the economic life of the asset. Residual values, where applicable, are reviewed annually against prevailing market values for equivalently aged assets and depreciation rates adjusted accordingly on a prospective basis.

a Capitalisation of interest on progress payments

Interest attributed to progress payments made on account of aircraft and other qualifying assets under construction are capitalised and added to the cost of the asset concerned. All other borrowing costs are recognised in the Income statement in the year in which they are incurred.

b Fleet

All aircraft are stated at the fair value of the consideration given after taking account of manufacturers' credits. Fleet assets owned or held on finance leases are disaggregated into separate components and depreciated at rates calculated to write down the cost of each component to the estimated residual value at the end of their planned operational lives (which is the shorter of their useful life or lease term) on a straight-line basis. Depreciation rates are specific to aircraft type, based on the Group's fleet plans, within overall parameters of 23 years and 5 per cent residual value for shorthaul aircraft and 25 years and 5 per cent residual value for longhaul aircraft.

Cabin interior modifications, including those required for brand changes and relaunches, are depreciated over the lower of five years and the remaining economic life of the aircraft.

Aircraft and engine spares acquired on the introduction or expansion of a fleet, as well as rotable spares purchased separately, are carried as property, plant and equipment and generally depreciated in line with the fleet to which they relate.

Major overhaul expenditure, including replacement spares and labour costs, is capitalised and amortised over the average expected life between major overhauls. All other replacement spares and other costs relating to maintenance of fleet assets (including maintenance provided under 'pay-as-you-go' contracts) are charged to the Income statement on consumption or as incurred respectively.

c Other property, plant and equipment

Provision is made for the depreciation of all property, plant and equipment. Property, with the exception of freehold land, is depreciated over its expected useful life over periods not exceeding 50 years, or in the case of leasehold properties, over the duration of the lease if shorter, on a straight-line basis. Equipment is depreciated over periods ranging from 4 to 20 years.

d Leased assets

Where assets are financed through finance leases, under which substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership are transferred to the Group, the assets are treated as if they had been purchased outright. The amount included in the cost of property, plant and equipment represents the aggregate of the capital elements payable during the lease term. The corresponding obligation, reduced by the appropriate proportion of lease payments made, is included in borrowings.

The amount included in the cost of property, plant and equipment is depreciated on the basis described in the preceding paragraphs on fleet and the interest element of lease payments made is included as an interest expense in the Income statement.

Total minimum payments, measured at inception, under all other lease arrangements, known as operating leases, are charged to the Income statement in equal annual amounts over the period of the lease. In respect of aircraft, certain operating lease arrangements allow the Group to terminate the leases after a limited initial period, without further material financial obligations. In certain cases the Group is entitled to extend the initial lease period on predetermined terms; such leases are described as extendable operating leases.

In determining the appropriate lease classification, the substance of the transaction rather than the form is considered. Factors considered include but are not limited to the following: whether the lease transfers ownership of the asset to the lessee by the end of the lease term; the lessee has the option to purchase the asset at the price that is sufficiently lower than the fair value on exercise date; the lease term is for the major part of the economic life of the asset; and the present value of the minimum lease payments amounts to at least substantially all of the fair value of the leased asset.

Intangible assets

a Goodwill

Goodwill arises on the acquisition of subsidiaries, associates and joint ventures and represents the excess of the consideration paid over the net fair value of the identifiable assets and liabilities of the acquiree. Where the net fair value of the identifiable assets and liabilities of the acquiree is in excess of the consideration paid, a gain on bargain purchase is recognised immediately in the Income statement.

For the purpose of assessing impairment, goodwill is grouped at the lowest levels for which there are separately identifiable cash flows (cash generating units). Goodwill is tested for impairment annually and whenever indicators exist that the carrying value may not be recoverable.

b Brands

Brands arising on the acquisition of subsidiaries are initially recognised at fair value at the acquisition date. Long established brands that are expected to be used indefinitely are not amortised but assessed annually for impairment.

c Customer loyalty programmes

Customer loyalty programmes arising on the acquisition of subsidiaries are initially recognised at fair value at the acquisition date. A customer loyalty programme with an expected useful life is amortised over the expected remaining useful life. Established customer loyalty programmes that are expected to be used indefinitely are not amortised but assessed annually for impairment.

d Landing rights

Landing rights acquired in a business combination are recognised at fair value at the acquisition date. Landing rights acquired from other airlines are capitalised at cost.

Capitalised landing rights based outside the EU are amortised on a straight-line basis over a period not exceeding 20 years. Capitalised landing rights based within the EU are not amortised, as regulations provide that these landing rights are perpetual.

e Contract based intangibles

Contract based intangibles acquired in a business combination are recognised initially at fair value at the acquisition date and amortised over the remaining life of the contract.

f Software

The cost to purchase or develop computer software that is separable from an item of related hardware is capitalised separately and amortised on a straight-line basis generally over a period not exceeding five years, with certain specific software developments amortised over a period of up to 10 years.

g Emissions allowances

Purchased emissions allowances are recognised at cost. Emissions allowances are not revalued or amortised but are tested for impairment whenever indicators exist that the carrying value may not be recoverable.

Impairment of non-financial assets

Assets that have an indefinite useful life are not subject to amortisation and are tested annually for impairment. Assets that are subject to amortisation are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount may not be recoverable. An impairment loss is recognised for the value by which the asset's carrying value exceeds its recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the higher of an asset's fair value less cost to sell and value-in-use. Non-financial assets other than goodwill that were subject to an impairment are reviewed for possible reversal of the impairment at each reporting date.

a Property, plant and equipment

The carrying value is reviewed for impairment when events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying value may not be recoverable and the cumulative impairment losses are shown as a reduction in the carrying value of property, plant and equipment.

b Intangible assets

Intangible assets are held at cost and are either amortised on a straight-line basis over their economic life, or they are deemed to have an indefinite economic life and are not amortised. Indefinite life intangible assets are tested annually for impairment or more frequently if events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying value may not be recoverable.

Investments in associates and joint ventures

An associate is an undertaking in which the Group has a long-term equity interest and over which it has the power to exercise significant influence. Where the Group cannot exercise control over an entity in which it has a shareholding greater than 51 per cent, the equity interest is treated as an associated undertaking.

A joint venture is a type of joint arrangement whereby the parties that have joint control of the arrangement have rights to the net assets of the joint venture. Joint control is the contractually agreed sharing of control of an arrangement, which exists only when decisions about the relevant activities require unanimous consent of the parties sharing control. The considerations made in determining significant influence or joint control are similar to those necessary to determine control over subsidiaries.

Investments in associates and joint ventures are accounted for using the equity method, and initially recognised at cost. The Group's interest in the net assets of associates and joint ventures is included in Investments accounted for using the equity method in the Balance sheet and its interest in their results is included in the Income statement, below operating result. The attributable results of those companies acquired or disposed of during the year are included for the periods of ownership.

Financial instruments

a Other equity investments

Other equity investments are non-derivative financial assets including listed and unlisted investments, excluding interests in associates and joint ventures. On initial recognition, these equity investments are irrevocably designated as measured at fair value through Other comprehensive income. They are subsequently measured at fair value, with changes in fair value recognised in Other comprehensive income with no recycling of these gains and losses to the Income statement when the investment is sold. Dividends received on other equity investments are recognised in the Income statement.

The fair value of quoted investments is determined by reference to bid prices at the close of business on the balance sheet date. Where there is no active market, fair value is determined using valuation techniques.

b Other interest-bearing deposits

Other interest-bearing deposits, principally comprising funds held with banks and other financial institutions with contractual cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest, are carried at amortised cost using the effective interest method.

c Derivative financial instruments and hedging activities

Derivative financial instruments, comprising interest rate swap agreements, foreign exchange derivatives and fuel hedging derivatives (including options, swaps and futures) are initially recognised at fair value on the date a derivative contract is entered into and are subsequently remeasured at their fair value. They are classified as financial instruments through profit and loss. The method of recognising the resulting gain or loss arising from remeasurement depends on whether the derivative is designated as a hedging instrument, and if so, the nature of the item being hedged (as detailed below under cash flow hedges). The time value of options is excluded from the designated hedging instrument and accounted for as a cost of hedging. Movements in the time value of options are recognised in Other comprehensive income until the underlying transaction affects the income statement.

Exchange gains and losses on monetary investments are taken to the Income statement unless the item has been designated and is assessed as an effective hedging instrument. Exchange gains and losses on non-monetary investments are reflected in equity.

Long-term borrowings are recorded at amortised cost, including leases which contain interest rate swaps that are closely related to the underlying financing and as such are not accounted for as an embedded derivative.

d Cash flow hedges

Changes in the fair value of derivative financial instruments designated as a hedge of a highly probable expected future cash flow and assessed as effective are recorded in equity. Gains and losses on derivative instruments not designated as a cash flow hedge are reported in the Income statement. Gains and losses recorded in equity are reflected in the Income statement when either the hedged cash flow impacts the Income statement or the hedged item is no longer expected to occur.

Certain loan repayment instalments denominated in US dollars, euros, Japanese yen and Chinese yuan are designated as cash flow hedges of highly probable future foreign currency revenues. Exchange differences arising from the translation of these loan repayment instalments are recorded in equity and subsequently reflected in the Income statement when either the future revenue impacts income or its occurrence is no longer expected to occur.

e Convertible debt

Convertible bonds are classified as compound instruments, consisting of a liability and an equity component. At the date of issue, the fair value of the liability component is estimated using the prevailing market interest rate for similar non-convertible debt, and is subsequently recorded at an amortised cost basis using the effective interest method until extinguished on conversion or maturity of the bonds, and is recognised within Interest-bearing borrowings. The difference between the proceeds of issue of the convertible bond and the fair value assigned to the liability component, representing the embedded option to convert the liability into equity of the Group, is included in Equity portion of convertible bond in Other reserves and is not subsequently remeasured.

Issue costs are apportioned between the liability and equity components of the convertible bonds where appropriate based on their relative carrying values at the date of issue. The portion relating to the equity component is charged directly against equity.

The interest expense on the liability component is calculated by applying the effective interest rate for similar non-convertible debt to the liability component of the instrument. The difference between this value and the interest paid is added to the carrying amount of the liability.

f Impairment of financial assets

At each balance sheet date, the Group recognises provisions for expected credit losses on financial assets measured at amortised cost, based on 12-month or lifetime losses depending on whether there has been a significant increase in credit risk since initial recognition. The simplified approach, based on the calculation and recognition of lifetime expected credit losses, is applied to contracts that have a maturity of one year or less, including trade receivables.

Employee benefit plans

a Pension obligations

The Group has both defined benefit and defined contribution plans. A defined contribution plan is a pension plan under which the Group pays fixed contributions into a separate entity. The Group has no legal or constructive obligations to pay further contributions if the fund does not hold sufficient assets to pay all employees the benefits relating to employee service in the current and prior years.

Typically defined benefit plans define an amount of pension benefit that an employee will receive on retirement, usually dependent on one or more factors such as age, years of service and compensation.

The Group's net obligation in respect of defined benefit pension plans is calculated separately for each plan by estimating the amount of future benefit that employees have earned in return for their service in the current and prior years. The benefit is discounted to determine its present value, and the fair value of any plan assets are deducted. The discount rate is the yield at the balance sheet date on AA-rated corporate bonds of the appropriate currency that have durations approximating those of the Group's obligations. The calculation is performed by a qualified actuary using the projected unit credit method. When the net obligation calculation results in an asset for the Group, the recognition of an asset is limited to the present value of any future refunds from the plan or reductions in future contributions to the plan ('the asset ceiling'). The fair value of the plan assets is based on market price information and, in the case of quoted securities, is the published bid price. The fair value of insurance policies which exactly match the amount and timing of some or all benefits payable under the scheme are deemed to be the present value of the related obligations. Longevity swaps are measured at their fair value.

Current service costs are recognised within employee costs in the year in which they arise. Past service costs are recognised in the event of a plan amendment or curtailment, or when the Group recognises related restructuring costs or severance obligations. The net interest is calculated by applying the discount rate used to measure the defined benefit obligation at the beginning of the period to the net defined benefit liability or asset, taking into account any changes in the net defined benefit liability or asset during the period as a result of contributions and benefit payments. Net interest and other expenses related to the defined benefit plans are recognised in the Income statement. Remeasurements, comprising actuarial gains and losses, the effect of the asset ceiling (excluding interest) and the return on plan assets (excluding interest), are recognised immediately in Other comprehensive income. Remeasurements are not reclassified to the Income statement in subsequent periods.

b Severance obligations

Severance obligations are recognised when employment is terminated by the Group before the normal retirement date, or whenever an employee accepts voluntary redundancy in exchange for these benefits. The Group recognises a provision for severance payments when it is demonstrably committed to either terminating the employment of current employees according to a detailed formal plan without realistic possibility of withdrawal, or providing severance payments as a result of an offer made to encourage voluntary redundancy.

Other employee benefits are recognised when there is deemed to be a present obligation.

Taxation

Current income tax assets and liabilities are measured at the amount expected to be recovered from or paid to the taxation authorities, based on tax rates and laws that are enacted or substantively enacted at the balance sheet date.

Deferred income tax is recognised on all temporary differences arising between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their carrying amounts in the financial statements, with the following exceptions:

•   where the temporary difference arises from the initial recognition of goodwill or of an asset or liability in a transaction that is not a business combination that at the time of the transaction affects neither accounting nor taxable profit or loss;

•   in respect of taxable temporary differences associated with investments in subsidiaries or associates, where the timing of the reversal of the temporary differences can be controlled and it is probable that the temporary differences will not reverse in the foreseeable future; and

•   deferred income tax assets are recognised only to the extent that it is probable that taxable profit will be available against which the deductible temporary differences, carried forward tax credits or tax losses can be utilised.

Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are measured on an undiscounted basis at the tax rates that are expected to apply when the related asset is realised or liability is settled, based on tax rates and laws enacted or substantively enacted at the balance sheet date.

Income tax is charged or credited directly to equity if it relates to items that are credited or charged to equity. Otherwise income tax is recognised in the Income statement.

Inventories

Inventories are valued at the lower of cost and net realisable value. Such cost is determined by the weighted average cost method. Inventories include mainly aircraft spare parts, repairable aircraft engine parts and fuel.

Cash and cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents include cash in hand and deposits with any qualifying financial institution repayable on demand or maturing within three months of the date of acquisition and which are subject to an insignificant risk of change in value.

Share-based payments

The Group operates a number of equity-settled, share-based payment plans, under which the Group awards equity instruments of the Group for services rendered by employees. The fair value of the share-based payment plans is measured at the date of grant using a valuation model provided by external specialists. The resulting cost, as adjusted for the expected and actual level of vesting of the plan, is charged to the Income statement over the period in which the options vest. At each balance sheet date before vesting, the cumulative expense is calculated, representing the extent to which the vesting period has expired and management's best estimate of the achievement or otherwise of non-market conditions, and accordingly the number of equity instruments that will ultimately vest. The movement in the cumulative expense since the previous balance sheet date is recognised in the Income statement with a corresponding entry in equity.

Provisions

Provisions are made when an obligation exists for a present liability in respect of a past event and where the amount of the obligation can be reliably estimated.

Employee leaving indemnities and other employee provisions are recorded for flight crew who, meeting certain conditions, have the option of being placed on reserve or of taking early retirement. The Group is obligated to remunerate these employees until they reach the statutory retirement age. The calculation is performed by independent actuaries using the projected unit credit method.

Other employee related provisions are recognised for direct expenditures of business reorganisation such as severance payments (restructuring provisions) where plans are sufficiently detailed and well advanced, and where appropriate communication to those affected has been undertaken at the balance sheet date.

If the effect is material, expected future cash flows are discounted using a rate that reflects, where appropriate, the risks specific to the provision. Where discounting is used, the increase in the provision due to unwinding the discount is recognised as a finance cost.

Revenue recognition

The Group's revenue primarily derives from transportation services for both passengers and cargo. Revenue is recognised when the transportation service has been provided. Passenger tickets are generally paid for in advance of transportation and are recognised, net of discounts, as deferred revenue on ticket sales in current liabilities until the customer has flown. Unused tickets are recognised as revenue after the contracted date of departure using estimates regarding the timing of recognition based on the terms and conditions of the ticket and statistical analysis of historical trends.

The Group considers whether it is an agent or a principal in relation to transportation services by considering whether it has a performance obligation to provide services to the customer or whether the obligation is to arrange for the services to be provided by a third party.

Other revenue including maintenance; handling; hotel and holiday and commissions is recognised as the related performance obligation is satisfied (over time) using an appropriate methodology which reflects the activity that has been undertaken to satisfy the related obligation.

Customer loyalty programmes

The Group's main loyalty programmes are Executive Club, Iberia Plus, Avios, Vueling Club and Aer Club. The customer loyalty programmes award travellers Avios points to redeem for various rewards, primarily redemption travel, including flights, hotels and car hire. Avios points are also sold to commercial partners to use in loyalty activity.

The Group has identified several performance obligations associated with the sale of Avios points. Revenue associated with brand and marketing services and revenue associated with Avios points has been determined based on the relative stand-alone selling price of each of the performance obligations. Revenue associated with brand and marketing services is recognised as the points are issued. Revenue allocated to the Avios points is deferred on the balance sheet as a current liability, and recognised when the points are redeemed. When the points are redeemed for products provided by suppliers outside the Group, revenue is recognised in the Income statement net of related costs, as the Group is considered to be an agent in these redemption transactions.

The Group estimates the stand-alone selling price of the brand and marketing performance obligations by reference to the amount that a third party would be prepared to pay in an arm's length transaction for access to comparable brands for the period over which they have access. The stand-alone selling price of Avios points is based on the value of the awards for which the points could be redeemed. The Group also recognises revenue associated with the proportion of award credits which are not expected to be redeemed, based on the results of statistical modelling.

Exceptional items

Exceptional items are those that in management's view need to be separately disclosed by virtue of their size or incidence. The exceptional items recorded in the Income statement include items such as significant restructuring; the impact of business combination transactions that do not contribute to the ongoing results of the Group; and the impact of the sale, disposal or impairment of an investment in a business.

Business combination transactions include cash items such as the costs incurred to effect the transaction and non-cash items such as accounting gains or losses recognised through the Income statement, such as bargain purchase gains and step acquisition losses.

Critical accounting judgements, estimates and assumptions

The preparation of financial statements requires management to make judgements, estimates and assumptions that affect the application of policies and reported amounts of assets and liabilities, income and expenses. These judgements, estimates and associated assumptions are based on historical experience and various other factors believed to be reasonable under the circumstances. Actual results in the future may differ from judgements and estimates upon which financial information has been prepared. These underlying assumptions are reviewed on an ongoing basis. Revisions to accounting estimates are recognised prospectively.

Estimates

The estimates and assumptions that have a significant risk of causing a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities within the next financial year are as follows.

a Employee benefit obligations, employee leaving indemnities, other employee related restructuring provisions

At December 31, 2018 the Group recognised €1,129 million in respect of employee benefit assets (2017: €1,023 million) and €289 million in respect of employee benefit obligations (2017: €792 million). Further information on employee benefit obligations is disclosed in note 30.

The cost of employee benefit obligations, employee leaving indemnities and other employee related provisions is determined using actuarial valuations. Actuarial valuations involve making assumptions about discount rates, expected rates of return on assets, future salary increases, mortality rates and future pension increases. Due to the long-term nature of these schemes, such assumptions are subject to significant uncertainty. The assumptions relating to these schemes are disclosed in notes 24 and 30. The Group determines the assumptions to be adopted in discussion with qualified actuaries. In respect of future pension increases in the Airways Pension Scheme, on July 5, 2018 the Court of Appeal released its judgement, upholding British Airways' appeal, concluding the Trustee did not have the power to introduce a discretionary increase rule. Further information on these proceedings is disclosed in note 31. The sensitivity to changes in pension increase assumptions is disclosed in note 30.

On October 26, 2018 the High Court of Justice of England and Wales issued a judgment in a claim between Lloyds Banking Group Pension Trustees Limited as claimant and Lloyds Bank plc and others as defendants regarding the rights of female members of certain pension schemes to equality of treatment in relation to pension benefits. The judgment affects some of the occupational pension schemes of the Group as set out in note 30.

Whilst the Lloyds judgement has brought some clarity to the issue, there remains some uncertainty over how the calculation of the obligation for Guaranteed Minimum Pension (GMP) equalisation should be performed. The UK Government may also produce guidance on the application of GMP equalisation. In determining the obligation for these consolidated financial statements, the Group has assumed that the Trustees will adopt Method C2 which was identified in the Lloyds judgement as the 'minimum interference' method which could be implemented without sponsor agreement. The final cost of GMP equalisation will be determined when further guidance is available and may be higher or lower than the current estimate.

Restructuring provisions are estimates of future obligations. The Group exercises judgement in determining the expected direct expenditures of reorganisation based on plans which are sufficiently detailed and advanced.

b Revenue recognition

At December 31, 2018 the Group recognised €4,835 million in respect of deferred revenue on ticket sales (2017: €4,742 million) of which €1,769 million (2017: €1,752 million) related to customer loyalty programmes.

Passenger revenue is recognised when the transportation is provided. At the time of transportation, revenue is also recognised in respect of tickets that are not expected to be used ('unused tickets'). Revenue associated with unused tickets is estimated based on the terms and conditions of the tickets and historical trends.

Revenue associated with the issuance of points under customer loyalty programmes is based on the relative stand-alone selling prices of the related performance obligations (brand, marketing and points), determined using estimation techniques. The transaction price of brand and marketing services is determined using specific brand valuation methodologies. The transaction price of the points is based on the value of the awards for which the points can be redeemed and is reduced to take account of the proportion of the award credits that are not expected to be redeemed by customers. The Group estimates the number of points not expected to be redeemed (using statistical modelling and historical trends) and the mix and fair value of the award credits. A one percentage point change in the assumption of points not expected to be redeemed will result in an adjustment to deferred revenue of €100 million, with an offsetting adjustment to revenue and operating profit recognised in the year.

The following three accounting estimates involve a higher degree of judgement or complexity, or are areas where assumptions are significant to the financial statements however these accounting estimates are not major sources of estimation uncertainty that have a significant risk of resulting in material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities within the next year.

c Income taxes

At December 31, 2018 the Group recognised €536 million in respect of deferred tax assets (2017: €523 million). Further information on current and deferred tax liabilities is disclosed in note 9.

The Group is subject to income taxes in numerous jurisdictions. Estimates are required in determining the worldwide provision for income taxes. There are many transactions and calculations for which the ultimate tax determination is uncertain because it may be unclear how tax law applies to a particular transaction or circumstance. The Group recognises liabilities for anticipated tax audit assessments. Where the final tax outcome of these matters is different from the amounts that were initially recorded, such differences will impact the current and deferred income tax assets and liabilities in the period in which such determination is made.

The Group recognises deferred income tax assets only to the extent that it is probable that the taxable profit will be available against which the deductible temporary differences, carried forward tax credits or tax losses can be utilised. Management consider the operating performance in the current year and the future projections of performance laid out in the approved Business plan in order to assess the probability of recoverability. The Business plan relies on the use of assumptions, estimates and judgements in respect of future performance and economics.

d Impairment of non-financial assets

At December 31, 2018 the Group recognised €2,403 million in respect of intangible assets with an indefinite life, including goodwill (2017: €2,363 million). Further information on these assets is included in note 14.

The Group assesses whether there are any indicators of impairment for all non-financial assets at each reporting date. Goodwill and intangible assets with indefinite economic lives are tested for impairment annually and at other times when such indicators exist. The recoverable amounts of cash-generating units have been determined based on value-in-use calculations. These calculations require the use of estimates and assumptions as disclosed in note 14.

Other non-financial assets are tested for impairment when there are indicators that the carrying amounts may not be recoverable.

e Residual values and useful lives of assets

At December 31, 2018 the Group recognised €12,437 million in respect of property, plant and equipment (2017: €11,846 million). Further information on these assets is included in note 12.

The Group estimates useful lives and residual values of property, plant and equipment, including fleet assets based on network plans and recoverable values. Useful lives and residual values are reassessed annually, taking into consideration the latest fleet plans and other business plan information.

Judgement

Engineering and other aircraft costs

At December 31, 2018, the Group recognised €1,359 million in respect of maintenance, restoration and handback provisions (2017: €1,125 million). Information on movements on the provision is disclosed in note 24.

The Group has a number of contracts with service providers to replace or repair engine parts and for other maintenance checks. These agreements are complex and generally cover a number of years. The Group exercises judgement in determining the assumptions used to match the consumption of replacement spares and other costs associated with fleet maintenance with the appropriate income statement charge. Aircraft maintenance obligations are based on aircraft utilisation, expected maintenance intervals, future maintenance costs and the aircraft's condition.

Changes in accounting policy and disclosures

a New and amended standards adopted by the Group

The Group has applied IFRS 15 'Revenue from contracts with customers' and IFRS 9 'Financial instruments' for the first time for the year to December 31, 2018. Further details on the impact of these standards on the Group accounting policies and financial position and performance are provided in note 33.

Other amendments to accounting standards, adopted for the first time in the year to December 31, 2018 have not resulted in a significant change to the financial position or performance of the Group, or to presentation and disclosures in the Group financial statements.

b New standards, amendments and interpretations not yet effective

The IASB issued IFRS 16 'Leases' with an effective date after the year end of these financial statements. This standard will impact the Group from January 1, 2019. Further information on the requirements of the standard is provided in note 33.

In addition the IASB's Interpretations Committee has issued IFRIC Interpretation 23 'Uncertainty over tax treatments'; effective for periods beginning on or after January 1, 2019. The interpretation clarifies application of recognition and measurement requirements in IAS 12 'Income Taxes' when there is uncertainty over income tax treatments. The Group has assessed the impact of the interpretation and it is not expected to have a material effect on the reported income or net assets of the Group.

There are no other standards, amendments or interpretations in issue but not yet adopted that the Directors anticipate will have a material effect on the reported income or net assets of the Group.

The Group has not early adopted any standard, amendment or interpretation that has been issued but is not yet effective.

3 Segment information

a Business segments

The chief operating decision-maker is responsible for allocating resources and assessing performance of the operating segments, and has been identified as the IAG Management Committee (IAG MC).

The Group has a number of entities which are managed as individual operating companies including airline and platform functions. Each airline operates its network operations as a single business unit and the IAG MC assesses performance based on measures including operating profit, and makes resource allocation decisions for the airlines based on network profitability, primarily by reference to the passenger markets in which the companies operate. The objective in making resource allocation decisions is to optimise consolidated financial results.

The Group has determined its operating segments based on the way that it treats its businesses and the manner in which resource allocation decisions are made. British Airways, Iberia, Vueling and Aer Lingus have been identified for financial reporting purposes as reportable operating segments. Avios and LEVEL are also operating segments but do not exceed the quantitative thresholds to be reportable and management has concluded that there are currently no other reasons why they should be separately disclosed.

The platform functions of the business primarily support the airline operations. These activities are not considered to be reportable operating segments as they either earn revenues incidental to the activities of the Group and resource allocation decisions are made based on the passenger business, or are not reviewed regularly by the IAG MC and are included within Other Group companies.

For the year to December 31, 2018

 

2018

€ million

British Airways

Iberia

Vueling

Aer
Lingus

Other Group companies1

Total

Revenue

 

 

 

 

 

 

Passenger revenue

12,972

3,765

2,377

1,952

483

21,549

Cargo revenue

867

251

-

54

1

1,173

Other revenue

682

749

20

9

224

1,684

External revenue

14,521

4,765

2,397

2,015

708

24,406

Inter-segment revenue

508

417

1

5

538

1,469

Segment revenue

15,029

5,182

2,398

2,020

1,246

25,875

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Depreciation, amortisation and impairment

(890)

(207)

(25)

(83)

(49)

(1,254)


 

 

 

 

 

 

Operating profit before exceptional items

2,207

437

200

305

81

3,230

Exceptional items (note 4)

448

-

-

-

-

448

Operating profit after exceptional items

2,655

437

200

305

81

3,678

Net non-operating costs






(191)

Profit before tax






3,487

 







 







Total assets

18,531

6,829

1,882

1,915

(1,123)

28,034

Total liabilities

(12,235)

(5,051)

(1,495)

(1,072)

(1,461)

(21,314)

1     Includes eliminations on total assets of €13,681 million and total liabilities of €3,667 million.

For the year to December 31, 2017 (restated)

 

2017

€ million

British Airways

Iberia

Vueling

Aer Lingus

Other Group companies1

Total

Revenue

 

 

 

 

 

 

Passenger revenue

12,470

3,554

2,104

1,797

360

20,285

Cargo revenue

843

242

-

47

-

1,132

Other revenue

589

644

23

11

196

1,463

External revenue

13,902

4,440

2,127

1,855

556

22,880

Inter-segment revenue

482

420

-

2

459

1,363

Segment revenue

14,384

4,860

2,127

1,857

1,015

24,243

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Depreciation, amortisation and impairment

(860)

(182)

(20)

(77)

(45)

(1,184)


 

 

 

 

 

 

Operating profit before exceptional items

1,992

376

188

268

126

2,950

Exceptional items (note 4)

(108)

(180)

-

-

-

(288)

Operating profit after exceptional items

1,884

196

188

268

126

2,662

Net non-operating costs

 

 

 

 

 

(181)

Profit before tax

 

 

 

 

 

2,481


 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

Total assets

18,872

6,079

1,515

1,976

(1,210)

27,232

Total liabilities

(12,117)

(4,358)

(1,253)

(1,055)

(1,516)

(20,299)

1     Includes eliminations on total assets of €13,031 million and total liabilities of €2,744 million.

b Geographical analysis

Revenue by area of original sale

 

Year to December 31

€ million

2018

2017
(restated)

UK

7,982

7,574

Spain

4,064

3,551

USA

4,093

3,694

Rest of world

8,267

8,061


24,406

22,880

Assets by area

December 31, 2018

€ million

Property, plant and equipment

Intangible
assets

UK

9,017

1,285

Spain

2,512

1,291

USA

29

4

Rest of world

879

618


12,437

3,198

December 31, 2017

€ million

Property, plant and
equipment

Intangible
assets

UK

9,013

1,171

Spain

2,050

1,241

USA

18

6

Rest of world

765

600


11,846

3,018

 

4 Exceptional items

 

Year to December 31

€ million

2018

2017

Restructuring costs1

136

288

Employee benefit obligations2

(584)

-

Recognised in expenditure on operations

(448)

288

Total exceptional (credit)/charge before tax

(448)

288

Tax on exceptional items

32

(66)

Total exceptional (credit)/charge after tax

(416)

222

1 Restructuring costs

During 2018 British Airways continued to implement the restructuring programme that started in July 2016, to develop a more efficient and cost effective structure. The overall costs of the programme principally comprise employee severance costs and include other directly associated costs such as onerous lease provisions and asset write down costs. Costs incurred in the year to December 31, 2018 in respect of this programme amount to €136 million (2017: €108 million), with a related tax credit of €26 million (2017: €21 million).

In the year to December 31, 2017, €180 million of restructuring costs were recognised at Iberia, related to the announcement of a new Transformation Plan. A related tax credit of €45 million was also recognised.

2 Employee benefit obligations

British Airways closed its New Airways Pension Scheme (NAPS) to future accrual and British Airways Retirement Plan (BARP) to future contributions from March 31, 2018. The schemes have been replaced by a flexible defined contribution scheme, the British Airways Pension Plan (BAPP). The changes resulted in a one-off reduction of the NAPS IAS 19 defined benefit liability of €872 million and associated transitional arrangement cash costs of €192 million through employee costs. These items are presented net, together with BARP closure costs, as an exceptional credit within the Income Statement of €678 million, with a related tax charge of €58 million.

On 26 October 2018, the High Court of Justice of England and Wales issued a judgement in a claim by Lloyds Banking Group Pension Trustees Limited as claimant to Lloyds Bank plc and others as defendants regarding the rights of female members of certain pension schemes to equality of treatment in relation to pension benefits. The judgement concluded that the claimant is under a duty to amend the schemes in order to equalise benefits for men and women in relation to Guaranteed Minimum Pension (GMP) benefits. The judgement affects some of the occupational pension schemes of British Airways as set out in note 30. The estimated increase in IAS 19 liabilities as a result of the High Court judgement has been recorded as an exceptional charge of €94 million.

5 Expenses by nature

Operating profit is arrived at after charging

Depreciation, amortisation and impairment of non-current assets:

€ million

2018

2017

Owned assets

711

641

Finance leased aircraft

371

382

Other leasehold interests

40

41

Amortisation of intangible assets

132

120

 

1,254

1,184

Operating leases costs:

€ million

2018

2017

Minimum lease rentals

- aircraft

890

888

 

- property and equipment

236

224

Sub-lease rentals received

(12)

(1)

 

1,114

1,111

Cost of inventories:

€ million

2018

2017

Cost of inventories recognised as an expense, mainly fuel

3,165

3,176

 

6 Auditors' remuneration

The fees for audit and non-audit services provided by the auditor of the Group's consolidated financial statements and of certain individual financial statements of the consolidated companies, Ernst & Young S.L., and by companies belonging to Ernst & Young's network, were as follows:

€'000

2018

2017

Fees payable for the audit of the Group and individual accounts

4,328

3,648

Fees payable for other services:



Audit of the Group's subsidiaries pursuant to legislation

634

569

Other services pursuant to legislation

436

465

Other assurance services

506

467

Services relating to corporate finance transactions

191

296

All other services

305

3


6,400

5,448

The audit fees payable are approved by the Audit and Compliance Committee and have been reviewed in the context of other companies for cost effectiveness. A description of the work of the Audit and Compliance Committee is set out in the Report of the Audit and Compliance Committee and includes an explanation of how objectivity and independence is safeguarded when non-audit services are provided.

7 Employee costs and numbers

€ million

2018

2017

Wages and salaries

3,240

3,155

Social security costs

516

486

(Credits)/costs related to pension scheme benefits

(317)

370

Other post-retirement benefit costs

5

-

Cost of share-based payments

31

34

Other employee costs1

877

943

Total employee costs

4,352

4,988

1     Other employee costs include allowances and accommodation for crew.

The number of employees during the year and at December 31 was as follows:

 

2018

2017

 

 

December 31, 2018

 

December 31, 2017

 

Average number of employees

Number of employees

Percentage
of women

Average number of employees

Number of employees

Percentage
of women

Senior executives

196

208

27%

166

190

24%

Ground employees:







Managerial

1,829

1,906

41%

2,334

2,296

43%

Non-managerial

33,230

32,161

35%

32,572

32,877

35%

Technical crew:







Managerial

6,673

6,726

17%

6,644

6,595

11%

Non-managerial

22,806

22,530

66%

21,706

22,036

68%


64,734

63,531


63,422

63,994


 

8 Finance costs, income and other non-operating (charges)/credits

a Finance costs

€ million

2018

2017

Interest expense on:

 

 

Bank borrowings

(17)

(20)

Finance leases

(144)

(116)

Provisions unwinding of discount

(27)

(20)

Other borrowings

(56)

(75)

Capitalised interest on progress payments

13

7

Change in fair value of cross currency swaps

-

(1)


(231)

(225)

b Finance income

€ million

2018

2017

Interest on other interest-bearing deposits

33

28

Other finance income

8

17


41

45

c Net financing credit/(charge) relating to pensions

€ million

2018

2017

Net financing credit/(charge) relating to pensions

27

(28)

d Other non-operating (charges)/credits

€ million

2018

2017

Loss on sale of property, plant and equipment and investments

(29)

(30)

Gain related to equity investments (note 16)

5

7

Share of profits in investments accounted for using the equity method (note 15)

5

3

Realised gain/(losses) on derivatives not qualifying for hedge accounting

20

(19)

Unrealised (losses)/gains on derivatives not qualifying for hedge accounting

(10)

28


(9)

(11)

9 Tax

a Tax charges

Tax (charge)/credit in the Income statement, Other comprehensive income and Statement of changes in equity:

For the year to December 31, 2018

€ million

Income
statement

Other
comprehensive
income

Statement
of changes
in equity

Total

Current tax

 

 

 

 

Movement in respect of prior years

4

-

-

4

Movement in respect of current year

(475)

162

-

(313)

Total current tax

(471)

162

-

(309)


 

 

 

 

Deferred tax

 

 

 

 

Movement in respect of prior years

22

-

-

22

Movement in respect of current year

(144)

206

-

62

Tax rate change

3

(13)

-

(10)

Total deferred tax

(119)

193

-

74


 

 

 

 

Total tax

(590)

355

-

(235)

Current tax in Other comprehensive income relates to employee retirement benefit plans, (€136m) and cash flow hedges (€26m).

For the year to December 31, 2017 (restated)

€ million

Income
statement

Other
comprehensive
income

Statement
of changes
in equity

Total

Current tax

 

 

 

 

Movement in respect of prior years

12

-

-

12

Movement in respect of current year

(319)

126

1

(192)

Total current tax

(307)

126

1

(180)


 

 

 

 

Deferred tax

 

 

 

 

Movement in respect of prior years

(8)

-

-

(8)

Movement in respect of current year

(155)

(307)

2

(460)

Tax rate change

(2)

12

-

10

Total deferred tax

(165)

(295)

2

(458)


 

 

 

 

Total tax

(472)

(169)

3

(638)

Current tax in Other comprehensive income relates to employee retirement benefit plans and current tax in the Statement of changes in equity relates to share-based payment schemes.

Current tax account

€ million

Restated opening
balance

Income statement

Other comprehensive income

Statement of changes in equity

Cash

Exchange movements

Closing balance

2018

180

(471)

162

-

343

4

218

2017

127

(307)

126

1

237

(4)

180

Current tax asset is €383 million (2017 restated: €258 million) and current tax liability is €165 million (2017 restated: €78 million).

b Deferred tax

For the year to December 31, 2018

€ million

Restated opening
balance

Income statement

Other comprehensive income

Statement
of changes
in equity

Exchange
movements
and other

Closing
balance

Property, plant and equipment

(1,029)

19

-

-

11

(999)

Employee leaving indemnities and other employee related provisions

374

(25)

-

-

(1)

348

Tax losses carried forward

352

(15)

-

-

-

337

Fair value losses recognised on cash flow hedges

39

-

195

-

-

234

Employee benefit plans

140

(96)

(2)

-

-

42

Tax assets in relation to tax credits and deductions

78

(3)

-

-

(1)

74

Share-based payment schemes

15

2

-

-

(1)

16

Foreign exchange

2

(3)

-

-

-

(1)

Deferred revenue

7

2

-

-

-

9

Other items

19

-

-

-

4

23

Total deferred tax

(3)

(119)

193

-

12

83

The deferred tax asset is €536 million (2017 restated: €523 million) and mainly arises in Spain. A reversal of €87 million on the deferred tax asset is expected within one year and the remainder beyond one year.

The deferred tax liability is €453 million (2017 restated: €526 million).

Within tax in Other comprehensive income is a tax credit of €222 million (2017: tax charge of €9 million) that may be reclassified to the Income statement and a tax credit of €133 million (2017 restated: tax charge of €160 million) that may not.

For the year to December 31, 2017

€ million

Restated opening
balance

Income statement

Other comprehensive income

Statement of changes in equity

Exchange
movements
and other

Restated closing
balance

Property, plant and equipment

(1,065)

4

-

-

32

(1,029)

Employee leaving indemnities and other employee related provisions

372

3

-

-

(1)

374

Tax losses carried forward

407

(59)

-

-

4

352

Fair value losses recognised on cash flow hedges

68

-

(21)

-

(8)

39

Employee benefit plans

441

(14)

(274)

-

(13)

140

Tax assets in relation to tax credits and deductions

78

-

-

-

-

78

Share-based payment schemes

13

1

-

2

(1)

15

Foreign exchange

9

(6)

-

-

(1)

2

Deferred revenue

101

(94)

-

-

-

7

Other items

27

-

-

-

(8)

19

Total deferred tax

451

(165)

(295)

2

4

(3)

c Reconciliation of the total tax charge in the Income statement

The tax charge is calculated at the domestic rates applicable to profits or losses in the Group's main countries of operation. The tax charge on the profit for the year to December 31, 2018 is lower than the notional tax charge.

The differences are explained below:

€ million

2018

2017
(restated)

Accounting profit before tax

3,487

2,481




Tax calculated at 25 per cent in Spain (2017: 25 per cent), 19.00 per cent in the UK (2017: 19.25 per cent) and 12.5 per cent in Ireland (2017: 12.5 per cent)1

671

480

Effects of:

 

 

Tax rate changes

(3)

2

Employee benefit plans accounted for net of withholding tax- recurring

(1)

(4)

Employee benefit plans accounted for net of withholding tax - non-recurring

(53)

-

Euro preferred securities accounted for as non-controlling interests

(2)

(4)

Investment credit

(10)

(7)

Movement in respect of prior years

(26)

(4)

Current year tax assets not recognised

9

4

Disposal and write down of investments

(1)

-

Non-deductible expenses - recurring items

7

6

Other items

(1)

(1)

Tax charge in the income statement

590

472

1     The expected tax charge is arrived at by aggregating the expected tax charges arising in each company in the Group. It changes each year as tax rates and profit mix change.

d Other taxes

The Group was also subject to other taxes and charges paid during the year which are as follows:

€ million

2018

2017

Payroll related taxes

509

478

UK Air Passenger Duty

885

838

Other ticket taxes and charges

1,758

1,694


3,152

3,010

 

e Factors that may affect future tax charges

Unrecognised temporary differences - losses

€ million

2018

2017

Spanish corporate income tax losses and other temporary differences

47

47

UK capital losses arising:



Before the change in ownership of the UK Group in 2011

36

36

After the change in ownership of the UK Group in 2011

8

8

On properties that were eligible for Industrial Buildings Allowances

272

283

Irish capital losses

25

25

Corporate income tax losses outside of the Group's main countries of operation

210

179

None of the unrecognised temporary differences have an expiry date.

Unrecognised temporary differences - investment in subsidiaries and associates

No deferred tax liability has been recognised in respect of €2,826 million (2017 restated: €1,905 million) of temporary differences relating to subsidiaries and associates. The Group either controls the reversal of these temporary differences and it is probable that they will not reverse in the foreseeable future or no tax consequences would arise from their reversal.

Tax rate changes

Reductions in the UK corporation tax rate to 19% (effective from April 1, 2017) and to 18% (effective April 1, 2020) were substantively enacted on October 26, 2015, and an additional reduction to 17% (effective April 1, 2020) was substantively enacted on September 6, 2016. This will reduce the Group's future current tax charge accordingly. The deferred tax on temporary differences and tax losses at December 31, 2018 has been calculated at the rate applicable to the year in which the temporary differences and tax losses are expected to reverse.

Tax audits

The Group files income tax returns in many jurisdictions throughout the world. Tax returns contain matters that are subject to potentially differing interpretations of tax laws and regulations, which may give rise to queries from and disputes with tax authorities. The resolution of these queries and disputes can take several years but the Group does not currently expect any material impact on the Group's financial position or results of operations to arise from such resolution. The extent to which there are open queries and disputes depends upon the jurisdiction and the issue.

10 Earnings per share

€ million

2018

2017
(restated)

Earnings attributable to equity holders of the parent for basic earnings

2,885

1,989

Interest expense on convertible bonds

18

17

Diluted earnings attributable to equity holders of the parent and diluted earnings per share

2,903

2,006

 

 

2018
Number
'000

2017
Number
'000

Weighted average number of ordinary shares in issue1

2,021,622

2,088,489

Assumed conversion on convertible bonds

72,944

72,418

Dilutive employee share schemes outstanding

18,515

18,446

Weighted average number for diluted earnings per share

2,113,081

2,179,353

 

€ cents

2018

2017
(restated)

Basic earnings per share

142.7

95.2

Diluted earnings per share

137.4

92.0

1     Includes 27 million as the weighted average impact for 65,956,660 treasury shares purchased in the share buyback programme (note 27).

The calculation of basic and diluted earnings per share before exceptional items is included in the Alternative performance measures section.

11 Dividends

€ million

2018

2017

Cash dividend declared

 

 

Interim dividend for 2018 of 14.5 € cents per share (2017: 12.5 € cents per share)

288

256

Final dividend for 2017 of 14.5 € cents per share (2016: 12.5 € cents per share)

294

262

 

 

 

Proposed cash dividends

 

 

Final dividend for 2018 of 16.5 € cents per share

327


Special dividend of 35.0 € cents per share

700


The proposed final dividend for 2018 would be distributed from net profit for the year to December 31, 2018.

Proposed dividends on ordinary shares are subject to approval at the annual general meeting and subject to approval are recognised as a liability on that date.

12 Property, plant and equipment

€ million

Fleet

Property

Equipment

Total

Cost

 

 

 

 

Balance at January 1, 2017

19,739

2,210

1,533

23,482

Additions

1,290

52

102

1,444

Disposals

(532)

(31)

(101)

(664)

Exchange movements

(799)

(88)

(50)

(937)

Balance at December 31, 2017

19,698

2,143

1,484

23,325

Additions

2,255

79

140

2,474

Disposals

(1,130)

-

(125)

(1,255)

Exchange movements

(310)

(34)

(17)

(361)

December 31, 2018

20,513

2,188

1,482

24,183

Depreciation and impairment





Balance at January 1, 2017

9,195

1,053

1,007

11,255

Charge for the year

924

57

83

1,064

Disposals

(242)

(26)

(78)

(346)

Exchange movements

(412)

(44)

(38)

(494)

Balance at December 31, 2017

9,465

1,040

974

11,479

Charge for the year

984

55

83

1,122

Disposals

(562)

-

(95)

(657)

Exchange movements

(164)

(18)

(16)

(198)

December 31, 2018

9,723

1,077

946

11,746

 

Net book values

 

 

 

 

December 31, 2018

10,790

1,111

536

12,437

December 31, 2017

10,233

1,103

510

11,846

 

Analysis at December 31, 2018

 

 

 

 

Owned

3,935

987

401

5,323

Finance leased

5,695

4

68

5,767

Progress payments

1,069

118

65

1,252

Assets not in current use

91

2

2

95

Property, plant and equipment

10,790

1,111

536

12,437

Analysis at December 31, 2017

 

 

 

 

Owned

3,875

1,027

400

5,302

Finance leased

5,231

4

62

5,297

Progress payments

958

71

47

1,076

Assets not in current use

169

1

1

171

Property, plant and equipment

10,233

1,103

510

11,846

 

The net book value of property comprises:

€ million

2018

2017

Freehold

448

464

Long leasehold improvements > 50 years

330

315

Short leasehold improvements < 50 years

333

324

Property

1,111

1,103

At December 31, 2018, bank and other loans of the Group are secured on fleet assets with a cost of €467 million (2017: €938 million) and letters of credit of €256 million in favour of the British Airways Pension Trustees are secured on certain aircraft
(2017: €260 million).

13 Capital expenditure commitments

Capital expenditure authorised and contracted for but not provided for in the accounts amounts to €10,831 million (December 31, 2017: €12,137 million). The majority of capital expenditure commitments are denominated in US dollars, and as such are subject to changes in exchange rates.

The outstanding commitments include €10,716 million for the acquisition of 71 Airbus A320s (from 2019 to 2022), 21 Airbus A321s (from 2019 to 2020), 4 Airbus A330s (in 2019), 41 Airbus A350s (from 2019 to 2022), 4 Boeing 777-300s (in 2020) and 12 Boeing 787s (from 2020 to 2023).

14 Intangible assets and impairment review

a Intangible assets

€ million

Goodwill

Brand

Customer loyalty programmes

Landing rights1

Software

Other

Total

Cost

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Balance at January 1, 2017

598

451

253

1,556

861

99

3,818

Additions

-

-

-

1

131

43

175

Disposals

-

-

-

-

(6)

(18)

(24)

Exchange movements

(2)

-

-

(38)

(38)

4

(74)

Balance at December 31, 2017

596

451

253

1,519

948

128

3,895

Additions

-

-

-

55

195

105

355

Disposals

-

-

-

-

(14)

(20)

(34)

Exchange movements

(1)

-

-

(15)

(13)

(2)

(31)

December 31, 2018

595

451

253

1,559

1,116

211

4,185

Amortisation and impairment

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Balance at January 1, 2017

249

-

-

98

387

47

781

Charge for the year

-

-

-

6

110

4

120

Disposals

-

-

-

-

(5)

-

(5)

Exchange movements

-

-

-

(3)

(17)

1

(19)

Balance at December 31, 2017

249

-

-

101

475

52

877

Charge for the year

-

-

-

6

123

3

132

Disposals

-

-

-

-

(13)

-

(13)

Exchange movements

-

-

-

(1)

(8)

-

(9)

December 31, 2018

249

-

-

106

577

55

987

Net book values

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

December 31, 2018

346

451

253

1,453

539

156

3,198

December 31, 2017

347

451

253

1,418

473

76

3,018

1     The net book value includes non-EU based landing rights of €100 million (2017: €106 million) that have a definite life. The remaining life of these landing rights is 17 years.

b Impairment review

The carrying amounts of intangible assets with indefinite life and goodwill allocated to cash generating units (CGUs) of the Group are:

€ million

Goodwill

Landing rights

Brand

Customer loyalty programmes

Total

2018

 

 

 

 

 

Iberia

 

 

 

 

 

January 1 and December 31, 2018

-

423

306

-

729


 

 

 

 

 

British Airways

 

 

 

 

 

January 1, 2018

47

738

-

-

785

Additions

-

55

-

-

55

Transfer to other Group companies

-

(12)

-

-

(12)

Exchange movements

(1)

(14)

-

-

(15)

December 31, 2018

46

767

-

-

813


 

 

 

 

 

Vueling

 

 

 

 

 

January 1 and December 31, 2018

28

89

35

-

152


 

 

 

 

 

Aer Lingus

 

 

 

 

 

January 1 and December 31, 2018

272

62

110

-

444


 

 

 

 

 

Avios

 

 

 

 

 

January 1 and December 31, 2018

-

-

-

253

253


 

 

 

 

 

Other Group companies

 

 

 

 

 

January 1, 2018

-

-

-

-

-

Transfer from British Airways

-

12

-

-

12

December 31, 2018

-

12

-

-

12


 

 

 

 

 

December 31, 2018

346

1,353

451

253

2,403

 

€ million

Goodwill

Landing rights

Brand

Customer loyalty programmes

Total

2017

 

 

 

 

 

Iberia

 

 

 

 

 

January 1 and December 31, 2017

-

423

306

-

729

 

 

 

 

 

 

British Airways

 

 

 

 

 

January 1, 2017

49

771

-

-

820

Additions

-

1

-

-

1

Exchange movements

(2)

(34)

-

-

(36)

December 31, 2017

47

738

-

-

785


 

 

 

 

 

Vueling

 

 

 

 

 

January 1 and December 31, 2017

28

89

35

-

152


 

 

 

 

 

Aer Lingus

 

 

 

 

 

January 1 and December 31, 2017

272

62

110

-

444


 

 

 

 

 

Avios

 

 

 

 

 

January 1 and December 31, 2017

-

-

-

253

253


 

 

 

 

 

December 31, 2017

347

1,312

451

253

2,363

 

Basis for calculating recoverable amount

The recoverable amounts of CGUs have been measured based on their value-in-use.

Value-in-use is calculated using a discounted cash flow model. Cash flow projections are based on the Business plan approved by the Board covering a five year period. Cash flows extrapolated beyond the five year period are projected to increase based on long-term growth rates. Cash flow projections are discounted using the CGU's pre-tax discount rate.

Annually the Group prepares and the Board approves five year business plans. Business plans were approved in the fourth quarter of the year. The business plan cash flows used in the value-in-use calculations reflect all restructuring of the business that has been approved by the Board and which can be executed by Management under existing agreements.

Key assumptions

For each of the CGUs the key assumptions used in the value-in-use calculations are as follows:

 

2018

Per cent

British Airways

Iberia

Vueling

Aer Lingus

Avios

Lease adjusted operating margin

15

9-15

11-15

15

211

Average ASK growth per annum

3-4

5-6

9-10

7-8

n/a1

Long-term growth rate

2.3

2.0

1.9

1.8

1.9

Pre-tax discount rate

8.3

9.0

8.4

8.3

9.3

 

 

2017

Per cent

British Airways

Iberia

Vueling

Aer Lingus

Avios

Lease adjusted operating margin

15

10-14

12-15

15

211

Average ASK growth per annum

2

8

10

5

n/a1

Long-term growth rate

2.3

2.0

2.0

2.0

2.0

Pre-tax discount rate

8.5

9.8

10.6

7.8

9.1

1     Operating margin for the Avios loyalty reward business is not adjusted for aircraft leases. ASK growth rate assumption is not applicable for Avios, which conducts business with partners both within and outside IAG.

Lease adjusted operating margin is the average annual operating result, adjusted for aircraft operating lease costs, as a percentage of revenue over the five year Business plan to 2023. It is presented as a percentage point range and is based on past performance, Management's expectation of the market development and incorporating risks into the cash flow estimates.

ASK growth is the average annual increase over the Business plan, based on planned network growth and taking into account Management's expectation of the market.

The long-term growth rate is calculated for each CGU based on the forecasted weighted average exposure in each primary market using gross domestic product (GDP) (source: Oxford Economics). The airline's network plans are reviewed annually as part of the Business plan and reflect Management's plans in response to specific market risk or opportunity.

Pre-tax discount rates represent the current market assessment of the risks specific to each CGU, taking into consideration the time value of money and underlying risks of its primary market. The discount rate calculation is based on the circumstances of the airline industry, the Group and the CGU. It is derived from the weighted average cost of capital (WACC). The WACC takes into consideration both debt and equity available to airlines. The cost of equity is derived from the expected return on investment by airline investors and the cost of debt is broadly based on the Group's interest-bearing borrowings. CGU specific risk is incorporated by applying individual beta factors which are evaluated annually based on available market data. The pre-tax discount rate reflects the timing of future tax flows.

Summary of results

In 2018, Management reviewed the recoverable amount of each of its CGUs and concluded the recoverable amounts exceeded the carrying values. Sensitivities have been considered for each CGU. Reducing long-term growth rates to zero, increasing pre-tax discount rates by 4 percentage points, and increasing the fuel price by 40 per cent, does not result in any impairment.

15 Investments

a Investments in subsidiaries

The Group's principal subsidiaries at December 31, 2018 are listed in the Group investments section.

All subsidiary undertakings are included in the consolidation. The proportion of the voting rights in the subsidiary undertakings held directly do not differ from the proportion of ordinary shares held. There have been no significant changes in ownership interests of subsidiaries during the year.

On August 28, 2018, British Airways exercised its option to redeem its €300 million, 6.75 per cent fixed coupon preferred securities which were previously classified as a non-controlling interest. The total non-controlling interest at December 31, 2018 is €6 million (2017: €307 million).

British Airways Employee Benefit Trustee (Jersey) Limited, a wholly-owned subsidiary of British Airways, governs the British Airways Plc Employee Share Ownership Trust (the Trust). The Trust is not a legal subsidiary of IAG; however, it is consolidated within the Group results.

b Investments in associates and joint ventures

The share of assets, liabilities, revenue and profit of the Group's associates and joint ventures, which are included in the Group's financial statements, are as follows:

€ million

2018

2017

Total assets

113

96

Total liabilities

(77)

(68)

Revenue

75

86

Profit for the year

5

3

The detail of the movement in Investment in associates and joint ventures is shown as follows:

€ million

2018

2017

At beginning of year

30

29

Share of retained profits

5

3

Additions

-

2

Disposals

-

(2)

Dividends received

(2)

(3)

Exchange movements

(2)

1


31

30

At December 31, 2018 there are no restrictions on the ability of associates or joint ventures to transfer funds to the parent and there are no related contingent liabilities.

At both December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017 the investment in Sociedad Conjunta para la Emisión y Gestión de Medios de Pago EFC, S.A. exceeded 50 per cent ownership by the Group (50.5 per cent). The entity is treated as a joint venture as decisions regarding its strategy and operations require the unanimous consent of the parties who share control, including IAG.

16 Other equity investments

Other equity investments include the following:

€ million

2018

2017

Listed securities

 

 

Comair Limited

17

23

Unlisted securities

63

56


80

79

The gain relating to other equity investments was €5 million (2017: €7 million).

17 Trade and other receivables

€ million

2018

2017
(restated)

Amounts falling due within one year

 

 

Trade receivables

1,695

1,526

Provision for expected credit loss

(98)

(63)

Net trade receivables

1,597

1,463

Prepayments and accrued income

823

764

Other non-trade debtors

352

194

 

2,772

2,421

Amounts falling due after one year

 

 

Prepayments and accrued income

298

297

Other interest-bearing deposits (greater than one year)

-

66

Other non-trade debtors

11

13

 

309

376

Movements in the provision for expected credit loss were as follows:

€ million

2018

2017

At beginning of year

63

64

Provision for expected credit loss

36

15

Release of unused amounts

(2)

(1)

Receivables written off during the year

1

(13)

Exchange movements

-

(2)


98

63

Trade receivables are generally non-interest-bearing and on 30 days terms (2017: 30 days).

The credit risk exposure on the Group's trade receivables is set out below:

December 31, 2018

€ million

Current

<30 days

30-60 days

>60 days

Trade receivables

988

163

135

409

Expected credit loss rate

0.04%

0.29%

1.60%

23.26%

Provision for expected credit loss

1

-

2

95

December 31, 2017

€ million

Current

<30 days

30-60 days

>60 days

Trade receivables

1,159

119

135

113

Expected credit loss rate

0.05%

1.13%

0.11%

53.92%

Provision for expected credit loss

1

1

-

61

18 Cash, cash equivalents and other current interest-bearing deposits

€ million

2018

2017

Cash at bank and in hand

2,453

1,963

Short-term deposits maturing within three months

1,384

1,329

Cash and cash equivalents

3,837

3,292

Other current interest-bearing deposits maturing after three months

2,437

3,384

Cash, cash equivalents and other interest-bearing deposits

6,274

6,676

Cash at bank is primarily held in AAA money market funds and bank deposits. Short-term deposits are for periods up to three months and earn interest based on the floating deposit rates.

At December 31, 2018 the Group had no outstanding bank overdrafts (2017: nil).

Current interest-bearing deposits are made for periods in excess of three months with maturity typically within 12 months and earn interest based on the market rates available at the time the deposit was made.

At December 31, 2018 Aer Lingus held €42 million of restricted cash (2017: €43 million) within interest-bearing deposits maturing after more than three months to be used for employee related obligations.

a Net debt

Movements in net debt were as follows:

€ million

Balance at January 1, 2018

Cash flows

Exchange movements

Non-cash

Balance at December 31, 2018

Bank and other loans

(1,824)

275

(4)

(28)

(1,581)

Finance leases

(5,507)

(254)

(134)

(33)

(5,928)

Interest-bearing borrowings

(7,331)

21

(138)

(61)

(7,509)

Cash and cash equivalents

3,292

583

(38)

-

3,837

Other current interest-bearing deposits

3,384

(924)

(23)

-

2,437


(655)

(320)

(199)

(61)

(1,235)

 

€ million

Balance at January 1, 2017

Cash flows

Exchange movements

Non-cash

Balance at December 31, 2017

Bank and other loans

(1,913)

138

26

(75)

(1,824)

Finance leases

(6,602)

657

424

14

(5,507)

Interest-bearing borrowings

(8,515)

795

450

(61)

(7,331)

Cash and cash equivalents

3,337

141

(186)

-

3,292

Other current interest-bearing deposits

3,091

432

(139)

-

3,384


(2,087)

1,368

125

(61)

(655)

19 Trade and other payables

€ million

2018

2017

Trade creditors

2,079

2,092

Other creditors

1,007

926

Other taxation and social security

332

238

Accruals and deferred income

541

467


3,959

3,723

Average payment days to suppliers - Spanish Group companies

Days

2018

2017

Average payment days for payment to suppliers

37

37

Ratio of transactions paid

33

38

Ratio of transactions outstanding for payment

119

35

 

€ million

2018

2017

Total payments made

6,306

4,879

Total payments outstanding

317

140

 

20 Deferred revenue on ticket sales

€ million

Customer loyalty programmes

Sales in advance of carriage

Total

Balance at January 1, 2018

1,752

2,990

4,742

Changes in estimates

-

(8)

(8)

Revenue recognised in the Income statement1

(733)

(22,027)

(22,760)

Loyalty points issued to customers

781

-

781

Cash received from customers

-

22,149

22,149

Other movements

(31)

(38)

(69)

Balance at December 31, 2018

1,769

3,066

4,835

 

€ million

Customer loyalty programmes

Sales in advance of carriage

Total

Balance at December 31, 2016

1,300

2,845

4,145

Restated for IFRS 15

497

38

535

Balance at January 1, 2017

1,797

2,883

4,680

Changes in estimates

(2)

(43)

(45)

Revenue recognised in the income statement1

(704)

(19,803)

(20,507)

Loyalty points issued to customers

735

-

735

Cash received from customers

-

20,050

20,050

Other movements

(74)

(97)

(171)

Balance at December 31, 2017

1,752

2,990

4,742

1     Where the Group acts as an agent in the provision of redemption products and services to customers through loyalty programmes, or in the provision of interline flights to passengers, revenue is recognised in the income statement net of the related costs.

Deferred revenue relating to customer loyalty programmes consists primarily of revenue allocated to performance obligations associated with Avios points. Avios points are issued by the Group's airlines through their loyalty programmes, or are sold to third parties such as credit card providers, who issue them as part of their loyalty programme. Active customer accounts do not have an expiry date and revenue may therefore be recognised at any time in the future. Deferred revenue in respect of sales in advance of carriage consists of revenue allocated to airline tickets to be used for future travel. Typically these tickets expire within 12 months after the planned travel date, if they are not used within that time period.

21 Other long-term liabilities

€ million

2018

2017

Non-current trade creditors

6

3

Accruals and deferred income

192

219


198

222

22 Long-term borrowings

a Current

€ million

2018

2017

Bank and other loans

153

183

Finance leases

723

747


876

930

b Non-current

€ million

2018

2017

Bank and other loans

1,428

1,641

Finance leases

5,205

4,760


6,633

6,401

Banks and other loans are repayable up to the year 2027. Bank and other loans of the Group amounting to €354 million (2017: €539 million) are secured on aircraft. Finance leases are all secured on aircraft or property, plant and equipment.

c Bank and other loans

€ million

2018

2017

€500 million fixed rate 0.25 per cent convertible bond 20201

482

472

€500 million fixed rate 0.625 per cent convertible bond 20221

460

450

Floating rate euro mortgage loans secured on aircraft2

252

278

€200 million fixed rate unsecured bonds3

175

200

Floating rate euro syndicate loan secured on investments4

99

148

Fixed rate Chinese yuan mortgage loans secured on aircraft5

53

68

Fixed rate unsecured US dollar mortgage loan6

43

49

Fixed rate unsecured euro loans with the Spanish State (Department of Industry)7

13

15

Floating rate pound sterling mortgage loans secured on aircraft8

4

27

Fixed rate US dollar mortgage loans secured on aircraft9

-

117


1,581

1,824

Less current instalments due on bank and other loans

(153)

(183)


1,428

1,641

1     Two senior unsecured bonds convertible into ordinary shares of IAG were issued by the Group in November 2015; €500 million fixed rate 0.25 per cent raising net proceeds of €494 million and due in 2020, and €500 million fixed rate 0.625 per cent raising net proceeds of €494 million and due in 2022. The Group holds an option to redeem each convertible bond at its principal amount, together with accrued interest, no earlier than two years prior to the final maturity date. The bonds contain dividend protection, and a total of 73,455,109 options related to the bonds were outstanding from issuance and at December 31, 2018.

2     Floating rate euro mortgage loans are secured on specific aircraft assets of the Group and bear interest of between 0.182 and 1.191 per cent. The loans are repayable between 2024 and 2027.

3     Total of €200 million fixed rate unsecured bonds between 2.5 to 3.75 per cent coupon repayable between 2019 and 2027.

4     Floating rate euro syndicate loan secured on investments is secured on specific assets of the Group and bears interest of 1.375 per cent plus 3 month EURIBOR. The loan is repayable in 2020.

5     Fixed rate Chinese yuan mortgage loans are secured on specific aircraft assets of the Group and bears interest of 5.20 per cent. The loans are repayable in 2022.

6     Fixed rate unsecured US dollar mortgage loan bearing interest between 1.98 and 2.37 per cent. The loan is repayable in 2023.

7     Fixed rate unsecured euro loans with the Spanish State (Department of Industry) bear interest of between nil and 5.68 per cent and are repayable between 2019 and 2026.

8     Floating rate pound sterling mortgage loans are secured on specific aircraft assets of the Group and bear interest of 0.81 per cent. The loans are repayable in 2019.

9     Fixed rate US dollar mortgage loans are secured on specific aircraft assets of the Group and bear interest of between 3.81 and 4.76 per cent. The loans were repaid in 2018.

d Total loans and finance leases

Million

2018

2017

Loans

 

 

Bank:

 

 

US dollar

$49

$196

Euro

€364

€440

Pound sterling

£4

£25

Chinese yuan

CNY 422

CNY 525


€465

€702


 

 

Fixed rate bonds:

 

 

Euro

€1,116

€1,122


€1,116

€1,122


 

 

Finance leases

 

 

US dollar

$3,259

$2,882

Euro

€2,308

€2,296

Japanese yen

¥77,379

¥63,978

Pound sterling

£134

£258


€5,928

€5,507


 

 


€7,509

€7,331

 

e Obligations under finance leases

The Group uses finance leases principally to acquire aircraft. These leases have both renewal and purchase options, at the option of the Group. Future minimum finance lease payments under finance leases are as follows:

€ million

2018

2017

Future minimum payments due:

 

 

Within one year

876

875

Between one and five years

3,186

2,783

Over five years

2,642

2,464

 

6,704

6,122

Less: finance charges

(776)

(615)

Present value of minimum lease payments

5,928

5,507

The present value of minimum lease payments is analysed as follows:

 

 

Within one year

723

747

Between one and five years

2,734

2,409

Over five years

2,471

2,351

 

5,928

5,507

23 Operating lease commitments

The Group has entered into commercial leases on certain properties, equipment and aircraft. These leases have durations ranging from less than one year to 13 years for aircraft and less than one year to five years for property, plant and equipment. One ground lease has a remaining lease of 127 years. Certain leases contain options for renewal.

The aggregate payments, for which there are commitments under operating leases, fall due as follows:

 

2018

 

2017

€ million

Fleet

Property, plant and equipment

Total


Fleet

Property, plant and equipment

Total

Within one year

975

148

1,123


802

190

992

Between one and five years

3,049

362

3,411


2,559

340

2,899

Over five years

2,235

1,895

4,130


1,789

1,962

3,751

 

6,259

2,405

8,664


5,150

2,492

7,642

Sub-leasing

The Group entered into subleases for certain surplus rental properties and aircraft assets held under non-cancellable leases to third parties. These leases have remaining terms of one to six years and the assets are surplus to the Group's requirements. Future minimum rentals receivable under non-cancellable operating leases are €13 million (2017: €8 million) with €4 million (2017: €7 million) falling within one year, €9 million (2017: €1 million) between one and five years and nil (2017: nil) over five years.

24 Provision for liabilities and charges

€ million

Restoration and handback provisions

Restructuring
provisions

Employee leaving indemnities and other employee related provisions

Legal claims provisions

Other provisions

Total

Net book value January 1, 2018

1,125

727

599

140

69

2,660

Provisions recorded during the year

378

192

223

43

100

936

Utilised during the year

(150)

(220)

(202)

(46)

(90)

(708)

Release of unused amounts

(42)

(8)

(45)

(26)

(5)

(126)

Unwinding of discount

6

4

16

1

-

27

Exchange differences

42

(2)

-

-

(2)

38

Net book value December 31, 2018

1,359

693

591

112

72

2,827

Analysis:

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current

148

237

60

78

36

559

Non-current

1,211

456

531

34

36

2,268


1,359

693

591

112

72

2,827

Restoration and handback provisions

The provision for restoration and handback costs is maintained to meet the contractual maintenance and return conditions on aircraft held under operating leases. The provision also includes an amount relating to leased land and buildings where restoration costs are contractually required at the end of the lease. Where such costs arise as a result of capital expenditure on the leased asset, the restoration costs are capitalised. The provision is a long-term provision, typically covering the leased asset term which is up to 13 years.

Restructuring provisions

The restructuring provision includes provisions for voluntary redundancies including the collective redundancy programme for Iberia's Transformation Plan, which provides for payments to affected employees until they reach the statutory retirement age. The amount provided for has been determined by an actuarial valuation made by independent actuaries, and was based on the same assumptions as those made to determine the provisions for obligations to flight crew below, with the exception of the discount rate, which in this case was 0.39 per cent. The payments related to this provision will continue over next ten years. During the year the Group recognised a provision of €136 million in relation to the restructuring plans at British Airways (note 4). The transformation programme has now been completed.

At December 31, 2018, €682 million of this provision related to collective redundancy programmes (2017: €719 million).

Employee leaving indemnities and other employee related provisions

This provision includes employees leaving indemnities relating to staff under various contractual arrangements.

The Group recognises a provision relating to flight crew who having met certain conditions, have the option of being placed on reserve and retaining their employment relationship until reaching the statutory retirement age, or taking early retirement. The Group is required to remunerate these employees until they reach the statutory retirement age, and an initial provision was recognised based on an actuarial valuation. The provision was reviewed at December 31, 2018 with the use of independent actuaries using the projected unit credit method, based on a discount rate consistent with the iBoxx index of 1.59 per cent and 0.39 per cent depending on whether the employees are currently active or not, the PERM/F-2000P mortality tables, and assuming a 1.50 per cent annual increase in the Consumer Price Index (CPI). This is mainly a long-term provision. The amount relating to this provision was €523 million at December 31, 2018 (2017: €542 million).

Legal claims provisions

Legal claims provisions includes:

•   amounts for multi-party claims from groups or employees on a number of matters related to its operations, including claims for additional holiday pay and for age discrimination;

•   provisions related to tax assessments; and

•   amounts related to investigations by a number of competition authorities in connection with alleged anti-competitive activity concerning the Group's passenger and cargo businesses.

The final amount required to pay the remaining claims and fines is subject to uncertainty (note 31).

This provision includes the payment of €104 million for the reissued fine in March 2017 against British Airways, related to investigations by a number of competition authorities in connection with alleged anti-competitive activity concerning the Group's passenger and cargo businesses (note 31).

Other provisions

Other provisions includes:

•   amounts for passengers whose flights were significantly delayed and are entitled to receive compensation. This provision is largely a current provision and is expected to have amounts both utilised and provided for each year. This provision is reassessed based on the historic level of claims;

•   a provision for the Emissions Trading Scheme that for CO2 emitted on flights within the EU in excess of the EU Emission Allowances granted; and

•   a provision related to unfavourable fleet contracts.

25 Financial risk management objectives and policies

The Group is exposed to a variety of financial risks: market risk (including fuel price risk, foreign currency risk and interest rate risk), counterparty risk and liquidity risk. Further information on the Group's financial instruments exposure to these risks is disclosed on note 26. The Board approves the key strategic principles and the risk appetite, defining the amount of risk that the Group is prepared to retain. The Group's Financial Risk Management programme focuses on the unpredictability of financial markets and seeks to minimise the risk of incremental costs arising from adverse financial markets movements.

Financial risks are managed under the oversight of the Group Treasury department. Fuel price fluctuations, euro-US dollar and sterling-US dollar exchange rate volatility represents the largest financial risks facing the Group. Other currencies as well as interest rate risk are also the subject of the Financial Risk Management programme. The IAG Management Committee approves the Group hedging profile and delegates to the operating company Risk Committee to agree on the degree of flexibility in applying the levels as defined by the IAG Management Committee. Each operating company Risk Committee meets at least once a month to review and approve a mandate to place hedging cover in the market including the instruments to be used.

The Group Treasury Committee provides a quarterly report on the hedging position to the IAG Management Committee and the Audit and Compliance Committee. The Board reviews the strategy and risk appetite once a year.

a Fuel price risk

The Group is exposed to fuel price risk. The Group's fuel price risk management strategy aims to provide protection against sudden and significant increases in fuel prices while ensuring that the Group is not competitively disadvantaged in the event of a substantial fall in the price. The Group strategy is to hedge a proportion of fuel consumption for up to three years, within certain defined limits.

Within the strategy, the Financial Risk Management programme allows for the use of a number of derivatives instruments available on over the counter (OTC) markets with approved counterparties.

The following table demonstrates the sensitivity of financial instruments to a reasonable possible change in fuel prices, with all other variables held constant, on result before tax and equity:

2018

 

2017

Increase/(decrease)
in fuel price
per cent

Effect on result
before tax
€ million

Effect on
equity
€ million

 

Increase/(decrease)
in fuel price
per cent

Effect on result
before tax
€ million

Effect on
equity
€ million

30

0

1,613


30

41

1,142

(30)

(3)

(1,695)


(30)

(48)

(1,039)

b Foreign currency risk

The Group presents its consolidated financial statements in euros, has subsidiaries with functional currencies in euro and pound sterling, and conducts business in a number of different countries. Consequently the Group is exposed to currency risk on revenue, purchases and borrowings that are denominated in a currency other than the functional currency of the entity. The currencies in which these transactions are denominated are primarily euro, US dollar and pound sterling. The Group generates a surplus in most currencies in which it does business. The US dollar is an exception as fuel purchases, maintenance expenses and debt repayments denominated in US dollars typically create a deficit.

The Group has a number of strategies to hedge foreign currency risk. The operational US dollar short position is subject to the same governance structure as the fuel hedging strategy set out above. The Group strategy, as approved by the IAG Management Committee, is to hedge a proportion of up to three years, within certain defined limits.

British Airways utilises its US dollar, euro, Japanese yen and Chinese yuan debt repayments as a hedge of future US dollar, euro, Japanese yen and Chinese yuan revenues. Iberia's balance sheet assets and liabilities in US dollars are hedged through a rolling programme of swaps and US dollar financial assets that eliminate the profit and loss volatility arising from revaluation of these items into euros. Vueling and Aer Lingus manage their net position in US dollars using derivative financial instruments.

The following table demonstrates the sensitivity of the Group's foreign exchange exposure to a reasonable possible change in the US dollar, sterling, Japanese yen and Chinese yuan exchange rates, with all other variables held constant, on result before tax and equity:


Strengthening/(weakening) in US dollar rate
per cent

Effect on result before tax
€ million

Effect on equity
€ million

 

Strengthening/(weakening) in pound
sterling rate
 per cent

Effect on result before tax
€ million

Effect on equity
€ million

 

Strengthening/(weakening) in Japanese yen rate
 per cent

Effect on result before tax
€ million

Effect on equity
€ million

 

Strengthening/(weakening) in Chinese yuan rate
per cent

Effect on result before tax
€ million

Effect on equity
€ million

2018

10

(16)

(9)

 

10

(40)

262

 

10

(6)

(54)

 

10

-

(6)


(10)

18

91

 

(10)

41

(273)

 

(10)

1

54

 

(10)

-

6


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2017

10

(2)

253

 

10

(36)

232

 

10

(2)

(45)

 

10

-

(7)


(10)

6

(72)

 

(10)

35

(233)

 

(10)

2

45

 

(10)

-

7

c Interest rate risk

The Group is exposed to changes in interest rates on debt and on cash deposits.

Interest rate risk on floating rate debt is managed through interest rate swaps, cross currency swaps and interest rate collars. After taking into account the impact of these derivatives, 77 per cent of the Group's borrowings were at fixed rates and 23 per cent were at floating rates.

All cash deposits are generally on tenors less than one year. The interest rate is predominantly fixed for the tenor of the deposit.

The following table demonstrates the sensitivity of the Group's interest rate exposure to a reasonable possible change in the US dollar, euro and pound sterling interest rates, on result before tax and equity:


Strengthening/
(weakening) in
US interest
rate
Basis points

Effect on result before tax
€ million

Effect on equity
€ million

 

Strengthening/
(weakening) in
euro interest
rate
Basis points

Effect on result before tax
€ million

Effect on equity
€ million

 

Strengthening/
(weakening) in pound sterling interest
rate
Basis points

Effect on result before tax
€ million

Effect on equity
€ million

2018

50

(1)

20

 

50

2

16

 

50

2

-


(50)

1

(20)

 

(50)

(2)

(25)

 

(50)

(2)

-


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2017

50

(1)

-

 

50

(6)

-

 

50

3

-

 

(50)

1

-

 

(50)

6

-

 

(50)

(3)

-

d Counterparty risk

The Group is exposed to counterparty risk to the extent of non-performance by its counterparties in respect of financial assets receivable. The Group has policies and procedures in place to minimise the risk by placing credit limits on each counterparty. These policies and procedures are coordinated through IAG Group Treasury Policies. The Committee also reviews the application of the policies and procedures by British Airways, Iberia, Vueling and Aer Lingus. The Group monitors counterparty credit limits and defaults of counterparties, incorporating this information into credit risk controls. Treasury activities include placing money market deposits, fuel hedging and foreign currency transactions, which could lead to a concentration of different credit risks with the same counterparty. This risk is managed by allocation of exposure limits for the counterparty to British Airways, Iberia, Vueling and Aer Lingus. Exposures at the activity level are monitored on a daily basis and the overall exposure limit for the counterparty is reviewed at least monthly using available market information such as credit ratings. Sovereign risk is also monitored, country concentration and sovereign credit ratings are reviewed at every Group Treasury Committee meeting.

Operating companies invest cash in interest-bearing accounts, time deposits, and money market funds, choosing instruments with appropriate maturities or liquidity to retain sufficient headroom. At the reporting date the operating companies held money market funds and other liquid assets that are expected to readily generate cash inflows for managing liquidity risk.

The financial assets recognised in the financial statements, net of impairment losses, represent the Group's maximum exposure to credit risk, without taking account of any guarantees in place or other credit enhancements.

At December 31, 2018 the Group's credit risk position, allocated by region, in respect of treasury managed cash and derivatives was as follows:

 

Mark-to-market of treasury controlled financial
instruments allocated by geography

Region

2018

2017

United Kingdom

42%

42%

Spain

-

1%

Ireland

3%

2%

Rest of Eurozone

33%

33%

Rest of world

22%

22%

 

e Liquidity risk

Liquidity risk management includes maintaining sufficient cash and interest-bearing deposits, the availability of committed credit facilities and the ability to close out market positions.

At December 31, 2018 the Group had undrawn overdraft facilities of €11 million (2017: €16 million). The Group held undrawn uncommitted money market lines of €28 million (2017: €28 million).

The Group held undrawn general and committed aircraft financing facilities:

 

2018

Million

Currency

€ equivalent

Euro facilities expiring between January and June 2020

€131

131

US dollar facility expiring December 2021

$1,164

1,024

US dollar facility expiring June 2022

$1,044

918

 

 

2017

Million

Currency

€ equivalent

Euro facilities expiring between January and October 2018

€217

217

US dollar facility expiring December 2021

$1,164

985

US dollar facility expiring June 2022

$1,053

891

The following table categorises the Group's (outflows) and inflows in respect of financial liabilities and derivative financial instruments into relevant maturity groupings based on the remaining period at December 31 to the contractual maturity date. The amounts disclosed in the table are the contractual undiscounted cash flows and include interest.

€ million

Within 6 months

6-12
months

1-2
years

2-5
years

More than 5 years

Total
2018

Interest-bearing loans and borrowings:

 

 

 

 

 

 

Finance lease obligations

(509)

(367)

(882)

(2,304)

(2,642)

(6,704)

Fixed rate borrowings

(53)

(18)

(533)

(645)

(58)

(1,307)

Floating rate borrowings

(18)

(67)

(80)

(93)

(118)

(376)

Trade and other payables

(3,591)

-

(13)

-

-

(3,604)

Derivative financial instruments (assets):

 

 

 

 

 

 

Interest rate derivatives

11

2

2

6

4

25

Foreign exchange contracts

69

58

122

72

-

321

Fuel derivatives

23

18

15

1

-

57

Derivative financial instruments (liabilities):

 

 

 

 

 

 

Interest rate derivatives

(18)

(7)

(13)

(16)

(1)

(55)

Foreign exchange contracts

(16)

(8)

(18)

(16)

-

(58)

Fuel derivatives

(342)

(290)

(270)

(110)

-

(1,012)

December 31, 2018

(4,444)

(679)

(1,670)

(3,105)

(2,815)

(12,713)

 

€ million

Within 6 months

6-12

months

1-2

years

2-5

years

More than 5 years

Total

2017

Interest-bearing loans and borrowings:

 

 

 

 

 

 

Finance lease obligations

(426)

(449)

(801)

(1,982)

(2,464)

(6,122)

Fixed rate borrowings

(31)

(58)

(99)

(1,224)

(77)

(1,489)

Floating rate borrowings

(29)

(76)

(85)

(144)

(150)

(484)

Trade and other payables

(3,411)

-

(15)

-

-

(3,426)

Derivative financial instruments (assets):

 

 

 

 

 

 

Interest rate derivatives

-

-

1

-

-

1

Foreign exchange contracts

45

10

10

2

-

67

Fuel derivatives

207

141

112

22

-

482

Derivative financial instruments (liabilities):

 

 

 

 

 

 

Foreign exchange contracts

(51)

(58)

(78)

(36)

-

(223)

Fuel derivatives

(2)

-

-

-

-

(2)

December 31, 2017

(3,698)

(490)

(955)

(3,362)

(2,691)

(11,196)

 

f Offsetting financial assets and liabilities

The following financial assets and liabilities are subject to offsetting, enforceable master netting arrangements and similar agreements.

The Group enters into derivative transactions under ISDA (International Swaps and Derivatives Association) documentation. In general, under such agreements the amounts owed by each counterparty on a single day in respect of all transactions outstanding are aggregated into a single net amount that is payable by one party to the other.

December 31, 2018

€ million

Gross value of financial instruments

Financial instruments that are offset under netting agreements

Net amounts of financial instruments in the balance sheet

Related amounts not offset in the balance sheet

Net amount

Financial assets

 

 

 

 

 

Derivative financial assets

363

13

376

(7)

369


 

 

 

 

Financial liabilities

 

 

 

 

 

Derivative financial liabilities

1,092

(13)

1,079

(7)

1,072

December 31, 2017

€ million

Gross value of financial instruments

Financial instruments that are offset under netting agreements

Net amounts of financial instruments in the balance sheet

Related amounts not offset in the balance sheet

Net amount

Financial assets

 

 

 

 

 

Derivative financial assets

551

(1)

550

(5)

545


 

 

 

 

 

Financial liabilities

 

 

 

 

 

Derivative financial liabilities

226

(1)

225

(5)

220

g Capital risk management

The Group's objectives when managing capital are to safeguard the Group's ability to continue as a going concern, to maintain an optimal capital structure, to reduce the cost of capital and to provide returns to shareholders.

The Group monitors capital on the basis of the adjusted net debt to EBITDAR ratio. For the year to December 31, 2018, the adjusted net debt to EBITDAR was 1.6 times (2017: 1.5 times). The definition and calculation for this performance measure is included in the Alternative performance measures section.

Further detail on liquidity and capital resources and capital risk management is disclosed in the financial review.

26 Financial instruments

a Financial assets and liabilities by category

The detail of the Group's financial instruments at December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017 by nature and classification for measurement purposes is as follows:

December 31, 2018

 

Financial assets

 

 

 € million

Amortised cost

Fair value through Other comprehensive income

Fair value through Income statement

Non-financial
assets

Total
carrying
amount by
balance sheet item

Non-current assets

 

 

 

 

 

Other equity investments

-

80

-

-

80

Derivative financial instruments

-

-

221

-

221

Other non-current assets

154

-

-

155

309

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current assets

 

 

 

 

 

Trade receivables

1,597

-

-

-

1,597

Other current assets

444

-

-

731

1,175

Derivative financial instruments

-

-

155

-

155

Other current interest-bearing deposits

2,437

-

-

-

2,437

Cash and cash equivalents

3,837

-

-

-

3,837

 

 

Financial liabilities

 

 

€ million

 Amortised cost

Fair value through Other comprehensive income

Fair value through income statement

Non-
financial
liabilities

Total
carrying
amount by
balance sheet item

Non-current liabilities

 

 

 

 

 

Interest-bearing long-term borrowings

6,633

-

-

-

6,633

Derivative financial instruments

-

-

423

-

423

Other long-term liabilities

13

-

-

185

198

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current liabilities

 

 

 

 

 

Current portion of long-term borrowings

876

-

-

-

876

Trade and other payables

3,591

-

-

368

3,959

Derivative financial instruments

-

-

656

-

656

December 31, 2017

 

Financial assets

 

 

 € million

Amortised cost

Fair value through Other comprehensive income

Fair value through income statement

Non-financial assets

Total carrying amount by balance sheet item

Non-current assets

 

 

 

 

 

Other equity investments

-

79

-

-

79

Derivative financial instruments

-

-

145

-

145

Other non-current assets

200

-

-

176

376

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current assets

 

 

 

 

 

Trade receivables

1,463

-

-

-

1,463

Other current assets

337

-

-

621

958

Derivative financial instruments

-

-

405

-

405

Other current interest-bearing deposits

3,384

-

-

-

3,384

Cash and cash equivalents

3,292

-

-

-

3,292

 

 

Financial liabilities

 

 

€ million

Amortised cost

Fair value through Other comprehensive income

Fair value through Income statement

Non-
financial
liabilities

Total
carrying
amount by
balance sheet item

Non-current liabilities

 

 

 

 

 

Interest-bearing long-term borrowings

6,401

-

-

-

6,401

Derivative financial instruments

-

-

114

-

114

Other long-term liabilities

15

-

-

207

222

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current liabilities

 

 

 

 

 

Current portion of long-term borrowings

930

-

-

-

930

Trade and other payables

3,411

-

-

312

3,723

Derivative financial instruments

-

-

111

-

111

b Fair value of financial assets and financial liabilities

The fair values of the Group's financial instruments are disclosed in hierarchy levels depending on the nature of the inputs used in determining the fair values and using the following methods and assumptions as follows:

Level 1: Quoted prices (unadjusted) in active markets for identical assets and liabilities. A market is regarded as active if quoted prices are readily and regularly available from an exchange, dealer, broker, industry group, pricing service, or regulatory agency, and those prices represent actual and regularly occurring market transactions on an arm's length basis. Level 1 methodologies (market values at the balance sheet date) were used to determine the fair value of listed asset investments classified as equity investments and listed interest-bearing borrowings.

Level 2: Inputs other than quoted prices included within Level 1 that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly. The fair value of financial instruments that are not traded in an active market is determined by valuation techniques. These valuation techniques maximise the use of observable market data where it is available and rely as little as possible on entity specific estimates. Derivative intruments are measured based on the market value of instruments with similar terms and conditions at the balance sheet date using forward pricing models. Counterparty and own credit risk is deemed to be not significant. The fair value of the Group's interest-bearing borrowings including leases is determined by discounting the remaining contractual cash flows at the relevant market interest rates at the balance sheet date.

Level 3: Inputs for the asset or liability that are not based on observable market data. For unquoted investments, fair value has been determined based on the most recent arm's length transaction for an identical instrument. The Group monitors transactions of these instruments on a regular basis to ensure the fair value is based on the most recent arm's length price.

The fair value of cash and cash equivalents, other current interest-bearing deposits, trade receivables, other current assets and trade and other payables approximate their carrying value largely due to the short-term maturities of these instruments.

The carrying amounts and fair values of the Group's financial assets and liabilities at December 31, 2018 are as follows:

 

Fair value

Carrying
value

€ million

Level 1

Level 2

Level 3

Total

Total

Financial assets

 

 

 

 

 

Other equity investments

17

-

63

80

80

Derivative financial assets:

 

 

 

 

 

Interest rate derivatives1

-

12

-

12

12

Foreign exchange contracts1

-

321

-

321

321

Fuel derivatives1

-

43

-

43

43


 

 

 

 

 

Financial liabilities

 

 

 

 

 

Interest-bearing loans and borrowings:

 

 

 

 

 

Finance lease obligations

-

6,086

-

6,086

5,928

Fixed rate borrowings

1,096

113

-

1,209

1,226

Floating rate borrowings

-

355

-

355

355

Derivative financial liabilities:

 

 

 

 

 

Interest rate derivatives2

-

43

-

43

43

Foreign exchange contracts2

-

54

-

54

54

Fuel derivatives2

-

982

-

982

982

1     Current portion of derivative financial assets is €155 million.

2     Current portion of derivative financial liabilities is €656 million.

The carrying amounts and fair values of the Group's financial assets and liabilities at December 31, 2017 are set out below:

 

 

Fair value

Carrying value

€ million

 

Level 1

Level 2

Level 3

Total

Total

Financial assets

 

 

 

 

 

 

Other equity investments

 

23

-

56

79

79

Derivative financial assets:

 

 

 

 

 

 

Interest rate derivatives1

 

-

1

-

1

1

Foreign exchange contracts1

 

-

67

-

67

67

Fuel derivatives1

 

-

482

-

482

482

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Financial liabilities

 

 

 

 

 

 

Interest-bearing loans and borrowings:

 

 

 

 

 

 

Finance lease obligations

 

-

5,639

-

5,639

5,507

Fixed rate borrowings

 

1,079

287

-

1,366

1,371

Floating rate borrowings

 

-

453

-

453

453

Derivative financial liabilities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

Foreign exchange contracts2

 

-

223

-

223

223

Fuel derivatives2

 

-

2

-

2

2

1     Current portion of derivative financial assets is €405 million.

2     Current portion of derivative financial liabilities is €111 million.

There have been no transfers between levels of fair value hierarchy during the year.

The financial instruments listed in the previous table are measured at fair value in the consolidated financial statements, with the exception of interest-bearing borrowings, which are measured at amortised cost.

c Level 3 financial assets reconciliation

The following table summarises key movements in Level 3 financial assets:

€ million

December 31,
2018

December 31,
2017

Opening balance for the year

56

58

Additions

8

1

Exchange movements

(1)

(3)

Closing balance for the year

63

56

d Hedges

Cash flow hedges

At December 31, 2018 the Group's principal risk management activities that were hedging future forecast transactions were:

•   Future loan repayments in foreign currency (predominantly US dollar loan repayments), hedging foreign exchange fluctuations on revenue cash inflows. Remeasurement gains and losses on the loans are recognised in equity and transferred to the income statement within revenue when the loan is repaid (generally in instalments over the life of the loan).

•   Foreign exchange contracts, hedging foreign currency exchange risk on revenue cash inflows and certain operational payments. Remeasurement gains and losses on the derivatives are recognised in equity and transferred to the income statement or balance sheet to match against the related cash inflow or outflow.

•   Forward crude, gas oil and jet kerosene derivative contracts, hedging price risk on fuel expenditure. Remeasurement gains and losses on the derivatives are recognised in equity and transferred to the income statement within fuel, oil costs and emissions charges to match against the related fuel cash outflow.

•   Interest rate contracts, hedging interest rate risk on floating rate debt and certain operational payments.

The amounts included in equity and the related notional amounts are summarised below, along with the analysis of gains and losses recognised in the year associated with these instruments:

(Gains)/losses in respect of cash flow hedges included within equity

€ million

December 31,
2018

December 31,
2017

Loan repayments to hedge future revenue

682

586

Foreign exchange contracts to hedge future revenue and expenditure1

(216)

163

Crude, gas oil and jet kerosene derivative contracts1

933

(474)

Derivatives used to hedge interest rates1

34

-

Instruments for which hedge accounting no longer applies1

22

-

 

1,455

275

Related tax credit

(267)

(44)

Total amount included within equity

1,188

231

1     The carrying value of derivative instruments recognised in assets and liabilities is analysed in parts a and b above.

Notional principal amounts

(€ million)

Hedge range

Within 1 year

1-2 years

2-5 years

Total
December 31, 2018

Foreign exchange contracts to hedge future revenue and expenditure from US dollars to pound sterling1

1.22-1.50

1,982

1,858

1,685

5,525

Foreign exchange contracts to hedge future revenue and expenditure from US dollars to euros1

1.06-1.34

2,299

1,993

2,197

6,489

1     Represents the value of the hedged item.

Crude, gas oil and jet kerosene derivative contracts are used to hedge fuel purchases over a period of up to three years. Notional quantities associated with these contracts at December 31, 2018 amounted to 14 million tonnes (2017: 8 million tonnes) with a hedge price range of USD469 - 787 (2017: USD388 - 725).

The Group's loan repayment instalments used to hedge foreign currency risk on future revenue inflows were predominantly in US dollars and euros. At December 31, 2018 the related borrowings were $2,795 million (2017: $2,511 million); and €1,722 million (2017: €1,922 million).

For the year to December 31, 2018

(€ million)

(Gains)/losses recognised in Other comprehensive income1

(Gains)/losses associated with ineffectiveness recognised in the Income statement2

Total recognised (gains)/
losses

Gains/(losses) reclassified to the Income statement

Gains/(losses) reclassified to the Balance sheet

Loan repayments to hedge future revenue

208

-

208

(82)

-

Foreign exchange contracts to hedge future revenue and expenditure

(387)

-

(387)

10

1

Crude, gas oil and jet kerosene derivative contracts

732

16

748

672

-

Derivatives used to hedge interest rates

37

-

37

(2)

-

Instruments for which hedge accounting no longer applies

6

-

6

(2)

-


596

16

612

596

1

1     Gains and losses recognised in Other comprehensive income represent gains and losses on the hedged items.

2     Ineffectiveness recognised in the Income statement is presented as Realised and Unrealised gains and losses on derivatives not qualifying for hedge accounting within other non-operating (charges)/credits.

 

Notional principal amounts

(€ million)

Hedge range

Within 1 year

1-2 years

2-5 years

Total December 31, 2017

Foreign exchange contracts to hedge future revenue and expenditure from US dollars to pound sterling1

1.22-1.53

1,406

1,097

620

3,123

Foreign exchange contracts to hedge future revenue and expenditure from US dollars to euros1

1.04-1.27

1,212

985

582

2,779

1     Represents the value of the hedged item.

 

For the year to December 31, 2017

(€ million)

(Gains)/losses recognised in Other comprehensive income1

(Gains)/losses associated with ineffectiveness recognised in the Income statement2

Total recognised (gains)/
losses

Gains/(losses) reclassified to the Income statement3

Loan repayments to hedge future revenue

(111)

-

(111)

(87)

Foreign exchange contracts to hedge future revenue and expenditure

299

1

300

44

Crude, gas oil and jet kerosene derivative contracts

(302)

(9)

(311)

(4)

Derivatives used to hedge interest rates

(1)

-

(1)

2


(115)

(8)

(123)

(45)

1     Gains and losses recognised in Other comprehensive income represent gains and losses on the hedged items.

2     Ineffectiveness recognised in the Income statement is presented as Realised and Unrealised gains and losses on derivatives not qualifying for hedge accounting within other non-operating (charges)/credits.

3     For the year to December 31, 2017, there were no gains or losses reclassified to the Balance Sheet.

There is an economic relationship between the hedged items and the hedging instruments as the terms of the hedging instruments match the terms of the highly probable forecast transactions. The Group has established a hedge ratio of 1:1 for the hedging relationships.

The Group has no significant fair value hedges at December 31, 2018 and 2017.

27 Share capital, share premium and treasury shares

Alloted, called up and fully paid

Number of shares
000s

Ordinary share capital
€ million

Share premium
€ million

January 1, 2018: Ordinary shares of €0.50 each

2,057,990

1,029

6,022

Cancellation of ordinary shares of €0.50 each

(65,957)

(33)

-

December 31, 2018

1,992,033

996

6,022

During the year IAG carried out a €500 million share buyback programme as part of its corporate finance strategy to return cash to shareholders. The programme was executed between May and October 2018 during which time IAG acquired and subsequently cancelled 65,956,660 ordinary shares. A total of 1.2 million shares were issued to employees during the year as a result of vesting of employee share schemes. At December 31, 2018 the Group held 8.7 million shares (2017: 9.9 million) which represented 0.44 per cent of the issued share capital of the Company.

28 Share-based payments

The Group operates share-based payment schemes as part of the total remuneration package provided to employees. These schemes comprise both share option schemes where employees acquire shares at nil-cost and share award plans whereby shares are issued to employees at no cost, subject to the achievement by the Group of specified performance targets.

a IAG Performance Share Plan

The IAG Performance Share Plan (PSP) is granted to senior executives and managers of the Group who are most directly involved in shaping and delivering business success over the medium to long term. In 2014, a conditional award of shares was subject to the achievement of a variety of performance conditions, which vest after three years subject to the employee remaining employed by the Group. From 2015, the awards were made as nil-cost options, and also had a two-year additional holding period after the end of the performance period, before vesting takes place. The award made in 2014 vests based 50 per cent on achievement of IAG's TSR performance targets relative to the MSCI European Transportation Index, and 50 per cent based on achievement of earnings per share targets. The awards made from 2015 will vest based one-third on achievement of IAG's TSR performance targets relative to the MSCI European Transportation Index, one-third based on achievement of earnings per share targets, and one-third based on achievement of Return on Invested Capital targets.

b IAG Incentive Award Deferral Plan

The IAG Incentive Award Deferral Plan (IADP) is granted to qualifying employees based on performance and service tests. It will be awarded when an incentive award is triggered subject to the employee remaining in employment with the Group for three years after the grant date. The relevant population will receive 50 per cent of their incentive award up front in cash, and the remaining 50 per cent in shares after three years through the IADP.

c Share-based payment schemes summary

 

Outstanding at January 1, 2018
'000s

Granted number '000s

Lapsed number '000s

Vested number '000s

Outstanding at December 31, 2018 '000s

Vested and exercisable December 31, 2018
'000s

Performance Share Plans

14,138

4,615

2,050

154

16,549

57

Incentive Award Deferral Plans

4,299

1,986

144

1,903

4,238

17


18,437

6,601

2,194

2,057

20,787

74

The fair value of equity-settled share-based payment plans determined using the Monte-Carlo valuation model, taking into account the terms and conditions upon which the plans were granted, used the following assumptions:

 

December 31,
2018

December 31,
2017

Expected share price volatility (per cent)

35

35

Expected comparator group volatility (per cent)

20

20

Expected comparator correlation (per cent)

60

65

Expected life of options (years)

4.6

4.8

Weighted average share price at date of grant (£)

6.91

5.46

Weighted average fair value (£)

4.01

3.66

Volatility was calculated with reference to the Group's weekly pound sterling share price volatility. The expected volatility reflects the assumption that the historical volatility is indicative of future trends, which may not necessarily be the actual outcome. The fair value of the PSP also takes into account a market condition of TSR as compared to strategic competitors. No other features of share-based payment plans granted were incorporated into the measurement of fair value.

The Group recognised a share-based payment charge of €31 million for the year to December 31, 2018 (2017: €34 million).

29 Other reserves and non-controlling interest

For the year to December 31, 2018

 

Other reserves

 

€ million

Retained earnings

Unrealised gains and losses1

Time value of options2

Currency translation3

Equity portion of convertible bond4

Merger reserve5

Redeemed capital reserve6

Total other reserves

Non-controlling interest7

January 1, 2018

2,278

(161)

(3)

(133)

101

(2,467)

37

(348)

307











Profit for the year

2,885

-

-

-

-

-

-

2,885

12











Other comprehensive income for the year










Cash flow hedges reclassified and reported in net profit:










Passenger revenue

-

77

-

-

-

-

-

77

-

Fuel and oil costs

-

(565)

-

-

-

-

-

(565)

-

Currency differences

-

4

-

-

-

-

-

4

-

Finance costs

-

4

-

-

-

-

-

4

-

Net change in fair value of cash flow hedges

-

(491)

-

-

-

-

-

(491)

-

Net change in fair value of cost of hedging

-

-

13

-

-

-

-

13

-

Net change in fair value of other equity investments

-

(5)

-

-

-

-

-

(5)

-

Currency translation differences

-

-

-

(80)

-

-

-

(80)

-

Remeasurements of post-employment benefit obligations

(696)

-

-

-

-

-

-

(696)

-











Hedges reclassified and reported in property, plant and equipment

-

(1)

-

-

-

-

-

(1)

-

Cost of share-based payments

31

-

-

-

-

-

-

31

-

Vesting of share-based payment schemes

(15)

-

-

-

-

-

-

(15)

-

Dividend

(582)

-

-

-

-

-

-

(582)

-

Cancellation of treasury shares

(500)

-

-

-

-

-

33

(467)

-

Dividend of a subsidiary

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

(1)

Transfer between reserves

(77)

-

-

77

-

-

-

-

-

Distributions made to holders of perpetual securities

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

(312)

December 31, 2018

3,324

(1,138)

10

(136)

101

(2,467)

70

(236)

6

 

For the year to December 31, 2017

 

Other reserves

 

€ million

Retained earnings

Unrealised gains and losses1

Time value of options2

Currency translation3

Equity portion of convertible bond4

Merger reserve5

Redeemed capital reserve6

Total other reserves

Non-controlling interest7

January 1, 2017

952

(299)

-

(6)

101

(2,467)

-

(1,719)

308

Restatement for adoption of new standards

(468)

-

38

-

-

-

-

(430)

-

January 1, 2017 (restated)

484

(299)

38

(6)

101

(2,467)

-

(2,149)

308

Profit for the year

1,989

-

-

-

-

-

-

1,989

20











Other comprehensive income for the year










Cash flow hedges reclassified and reported in net profit:










Passenger revenue

-

84

-

-

-

-

-

84

-

Fuel and oil costs

-

(38)

-

-

-

-

-

(38)

-

Currency differences

-

(18)

-

-

-

-

-

(18)

-

Net change in fair value of cash flow hedges

-

101

-

-

-

-

-

101

-

Net change in fair value of cost of hedging

-

-

(41)

-

-

-

-

(41)

-

Net change in fair value of other equity investments

-

9

-

-

-

-

-

9

-

Currency translation differences

-

-

-

(127)

-

-

-

(127)

-

Remeasurements of post-employment benefit obligations

739

-

-

-

-

-

-

739

-











Cost of share-based payments

34

-

-

-

-

-

-

34

-

Vesting of share-based payment schemes

(33)

-

-

-

-

-

-

(33)

-

Dividend

(518)

-

-

-

-

-

-

(518)

-

Cancellation of treasury shares

(500)

-

-

-

-

-

37

(463)

-

Dividend of a subsidiary

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

(1)

Transfer between reserves

83

-

-

-

-

-

-

83

-

Distributions made to holders of perpetual securities

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

(20)

December 31, 2017

2,278

(161)

(3)

(133)

101

(2,467)

37

(348)

307

1     The unrealised gains and losses reserve records fair value changes on equity investments and the portion of the gain or loss on a hedging instrument in a cash flow hedge that is determined to be an effective hedge.

2     The time value of options reserve records fair value changes on the cost of hedging.

3     The currency translation reserve records exchange differences arising from the translation of the financial statements of non-euro functional currency subsidiaries and investments accounted for under the equity method into the Group's reporting currency of euros. The movement through this reserve in 2018 is affected by the fluctuations in the pound sterling to euro foreign exchange translation rate.

4     The equity portion of convertible bond reserve represents the equity portion of convertible bonds issued. At December 31, 2018, this related to the €500 million fixed rate 0.25 per cent convertible bond and the €500 million fixed rate 0.625 per cent convertible bond (note 22).

5     The merger reserve originated from the merger transaction between British Airways and Iberia. The balance represents the difference between the fair value of the Group on the transaction date, and the fair value of Iberia and the book value of British Airways (including its reserves).

6     The redeemed capital reserve represents the nominal value of the decrease in share capital, relating to cancelled shares.

7     On August 28, 2018, British Airways exercised its option to redeem its €300 million, 6.75 per cent fixed coupon preferred security which was previously classified as a non-controlling interest. The total non-controlling interest at December 31, 2018 is €6 million. At December 31, 2018, non-controlling interests represent the shares in British Airways Plc and IB Opco Holding, S.L. held by UK and Spanish entities respectively, established for the purpose of implementing the British Airways and Iberia nationality structures. The route licences granted by civil aviation authorities in the UK and Spain require that the majority of the voting rights in British Airways and Iberia are held by UK and Spanish nationals. These entities own the majority of the voting rights in British Airways Plc and IB Opco Holding, S.L., with IAG holding 99 per cent of the economic rights in these companies.

30 Employee benefit obligations

The Group operates a variety of post-employment benefit arrangements, covering both defined contribution and defined benefit schemes. The Group also has a scheme for flight crew who meet certain conditions and therefore have the option of being placed on reserve and retaining their employment relationship until reaching the statutory retirement age, or taking early retirement (note 24).

Defined contribution schemes

The Group operates a number of defined contribution schemes for its employees. The defined contribution scheme British Airways Retirement Plan (BARP) was closed to future contributions on March 31, 2018. The BARP and NAPS schemes (see below) have been replaced by a flexible benefit scheme, incorporating a new defined contribution scheme that offers a choice of contribution rates and the ability to opt for cash instead of a pension.

Costs recognised in respect of defined contribution pension plans in Spain, UK and Ireland for the year to December 31, 2018 were €214 million (2017: €135 million).

Defined benefit schemes

i APS and NAPS

The principal funded defined benefit pension schemes within the Group are the Airways Pension Scheme (APS) and the New Airways Pension Scheme (NAPS), both of which are in the UK and are closed to new members. NAPS was closed to future accrual from March 31, 2018, resulting in a reduction of the defined benefit obligation. Following closure members' deferred pensions will now be increased annually by inflation up to five per cent per annum (measured using CPI), which is generally lower than the previous assumption for pay growth which included pay rises and promotions. NAPS members were offered a choice of transition arrangements, including non-cash options to increase their NAPS pensions prior to closure. The financial effect of the closure and the non-cash transition arrangements was a past service gain of €872 million which has been presented as an exceptional item net of transition costs of €192 million which were paid either directly to members or into their pension accounts. British Airways currently makes deficit contributions to NAPS of €333 million per annum until September 2027 plus additional contributions of up to €167 million per year depending on the cash balance at the end of March each year. As part of the closure of NAPS, British Airways agreed to make certain additional transition payments to NAPS members if the deficit had reduced more than expected at either the 2018 or 2021 valuations. No allowance for such payments has been made in the valuation of the defined benefit obligation.

APS has been closed to new members since 1984. The benefits provided under APS are based on final average pensionable pay and, for the majority of members, are subject to inflationary increases in payment in line with the Government's Pension Increase (Review) Orders (PIRO), which are based on CPI.

The Trustee of APS has proposed an additional discretionary increase above CPI inflation for pensions in payment for the year to March 31, 2014. British Airways challenged the decision and initiated legal proceedings to determine the legitimacy of the discretionary increase. The High Court issued a judgement in May 2017, which determined that the Trustee had the power to grant discretionary increases, whilst reiterating the Trustee must take into consideration all relevant factors, and ignore irrelevant factors. British Airways appealed the judgement to the Court of Appeal. On July 5, 2018 the Court of Appeal released its judgement, upholding British Airways' appeal, concluding the Trustee did not have the power to introduce a discretionary increase rule. Following the judgement, the Trustee was allowed permission to appeal to the Supreme Court; the Trustee has appealed. The delayed 2015 triennial valuation will be completed once the outcome of the appeal is known. British Airways is committed to an existing recovery plan, which sees deficit payments of €61 million per annum until March 2023.

APS and NAPS are governed by separate Trustee Boards, although much of the business of the two schemes is common. Most main Board and committee meetings are held in tandem although each Trustee Board reaches its decisions independently. There are three sub committees which are separately responsible for the governance, operation and investments of each scheme. British Airways Pension Trustees Limited holds the assets of both schemes on behalf of their respective Trustees.

Deficit payment plans are agreed with the Trustees of each scheme every three years based on the actuarial valuation (triennial valuation) rather than the IAS 19 accounting valuation. The latest deficit recovery plan was agreed on the March 31, 2012 position with respect to APS and March 31, 2015 with respect to NAPS (note 30i). The actuarial valuations performed at March 31, 2012 and March 31, 2015 are different to the valuation performed at December 31, 2018 under IAS 19 'Employee benefits' mainly due to timing differences of the measurement dates and to the specific scheme assumptions in the actuarial valuation compared with IAS 19 guidance used in the accounting valuation assumptions. For example, IAS 19 requires the discount rate to be based on corporate bond yields regardless of how the assets are actually invested, which may not result in the calculations in this report being a best estimate of the cost to the Company of providing benefits under either Scheme. The investment strategy of each Scheme is likely to change over its life, so the relationship between the discount rate and the expected rate of return on each Scheme's assets may also change.

ii Other plans

British Airways provides certain additional post-retirement healthcare benefits to eligible employees in the US through the US Post-Retirement Medical Benefit plan (US PRMB) which is considered to be a defined benefit scheme. In addition, Aer Lingus operates certain defined benefit plans, both funded and unfunded.

The defined benefit plans expose the Group to actuarial risks, such as longevity risk, interest rate risk, inflation risk, and market (investment) risk including currency risk.

iii Cash payments

Cash payments in respect to pension obligations comprise normal employer contributions by the Group; deficit contributions based on the agreed deficit payment plan with APS and NAPS; and cash sweep payments relating to additional payments made conditional on the level of cash in British Airways. Total payments for the year to December 31, 2018 net of service costs were €843 million (2017: €666 million) being the employer contributions of €716 million (2017: €899 million) less the current service cost of €55 million (2017: €233 million) (note 30b) and including payments made under transitional arrangements on the closure of NAPS to future accrual of €182 million.

a Employee benefit schemes recognised on the Balance Sheet

 

2018

€ million

APS

NAPS

Other1

Total

Scheme assets at fair value

8,372

18,846

382

27,600

Present value of scheme liabilities

(7,110)

(17,628)

(645)

(25,383)

Net pension asset/(liability)

1,262

1,218

(263)

2,217

Effect of the asset ceiling2

(469)

(896)

-

(1,365)

Other employee benefit obligations

-

-

(12)

(12)

December 31, 2018

793

322

(275)

840

Represented by:

 

 

 

 

Employee benefit assets

 

 

 

1,129

Employee benefit obligations

 

 

 

(289)

 

 

 

 

840

 

 

2017

€ million

APS

NAPS

Other1

Total

Scheme assets at fair value

9,185

19,558

429

29,172

Present value of scheme liabilities

(7,606)

(20,060)

(697)

(28,363)

Net pension asset/(liability)

1,579

(502)

(268)

809

Effect of the asset ceiling2

(570)

-

-

(570)

Other employee benefit obligations

-

-

(8)

(8)

December 31, 2017

1,009

(502)

(276)

231

Represented by:

 

 

 

 

Employee benefit assets

 

 

 

1,023

Employee benefit obligations

 

 

 

(792)

 

 

 

 

231

1     The present value of scheme liabilities for the US PRMB was €13 million at December 31, 2018 (2017: €15 million).

2     APS and NAPS have an accounting surplus under IAS 19 (2017: APS only), which would be available to the Group as a refund upon wind up of the scheme. This refund is restricted due to withholding taxes that would be payable by the Trustee.

b Amounts recognised in the Income statement

Pension costs charged to operating result are:

€ million

2018

2017

Defined benefit plans:

 

 

Current service cost

55

233

Past service (credit)/cost1

(586)

2


(531)

235

Defined contribution plans

214

135

Pension (credits)/costs recorded as employee costs

(317)

370

1     Past service net credit in 2018 includes a gain arising on the closure of NAPS to future accrual, resulting in a one-off reduction in the defined benefit obligation of €872 million and associated transitional arrangement cash costs of €192 million. On October 26, 2018 the High Court's judgement in the Lloyds Bank case confirmed that pension schemes are required to equalise for the effects of unequal GMPs accrued over the period since May 17, 1990. The estimated cost of equalising GMPs is €94 million. In determining the cost of equalising for GMPs, the Group has assumed that the Trustees will adopt Method C2 which was identified in the Lloyds judgement as the 'minimum interference' method which could be implemented without sponsor agreement.

Pension costs (credited)/charged as finance costs are:

€ million

2018

2017

Interest income on scheme assets

(731)

(730)

Interest expense on scheme liabilities

690

743

Interest expense on asset ceiling

14

15

Net financing (income)/expense relating to pensions

(27)

28

c Remeasurements recognised in the Statement of other comprehensive income

€ million

2018

2017

Return on plan assets excluding interest income

1,313

(1,698)

Remeasurement of plan liabilities from changes in financial assumptions

(997)

530

Remeasurement of experience (gains)/losses

(297)

274

Remeasurement of the APS and NAPS asset ceilings

806

2

Exchange movements

5

(7)

Pension remeasurements charged/(credited) to Other comprehensive income

830

(899)

d Fair value of scheme assets

A reconciliation of the opening and closing balances of the fair value of scheme assets is set out below:

€ million

2018

2017

January 1

29,172

28,448

Interest income

731

730

Return on plan assets excluding interest income

(1,313)

1,698

Employer contributions1

716

881

Employee contributions

128

101

Benefits paid

(1,340)

(1,324)

Exchange movements

(494)

(1,362)

December 31

27,600

29,172

1     Includes employer contributions to APS of €111 million (2017: €109 million) and to NAPS of €582 million (2017: €748 million), of which deficit funding
payments represented €108 million for APS (2017: €104 million) and €509 million for NAPS (2017: €516 million).

For both APS and NAPS, the Trustee has ultimate responsibility for decision making on investments matters, including the asset-liability matching strategy. The latter is a form of investing designed to match the movement in pension plan assets with the movement in the projected benefit obligation over time. The Trustees' investment committee adopts an annual business plan which sets out investment objectives and work required to support achievement of these objectives. The committee also deals with the monitoring of performance and activities, including work on developing the strategic benchmark to improve the risk return profile of the scheme where possible, as well as having a trigger based dynamic governance process to be able to take advantage of opportunities as they arise. The investment committee reviews the existing investment restrictions, performance benchmarks and targets, as well as continuing to develop the de-risking and liability hedging portfolio.

Both schemes use derivative instruments for investment purposes and to manage exposures to financial risks, such as interest rate, foreign exchange and liquidity risks arising in the normal course of business. Exposure to interest rate risk is managed through the use of Inflation-Linked Swap contracts. Foreign exchange forward contracts are entered into to mitigate the risk of currency fluctuations. For NAPS, a strategy exists to provide protection against the equity market downside risk by reducing some of the upside participation.

Scheme assets held by all defined benefit schemes operated by the Group at December 31 comprise:

€ million

2018

2017

Return seeking investments - equities

 

 

UK

1,737

2,646

Rest of world

4,602

6,677


6,339

9,323

Return seeking investments - other

 

 

Private equity

931

777

Property

1,917

1,906

Alternative investments

1,183

1,023


4,031

3,706

Liability matching investments

 

 

UK fixed bonds

4,885

4,885

Rest of world fixed bonds

70

95

UK index-linked bonds

5,019

7,614

Rest of world index-linked bonds

103

177


10,077

12,771

Other

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents

418

670

Derivatives

57

178

Insurance contract

1,663

1,770

Longevity swap

4,321

(109)

Other

694

863


27,600

29,172

All equities and bonds have quoted prices in active markets.

For APS and NAPS, the composition of the scheme assets is:

 

December 31, 2018

December 31, 2017

€ million

APS

NAPS

APS

NAPS

Return seeking investments

702

9,477

742

12,074

Liability matching investments

1,538

8,457

6,428

6,240

 

2,240

17,934

7,170

18,314

Insurance contract and related longevity swap

5,956

-

1,637

-

Other

176

912

378

1,244

Fair value of scheme assets

8,372

18,846

9,185

19,558

The strategic benchmark for asset allocations differentiate between 'return seeking assets' and 'liability matching assets'. Given the respective maturity of each scheme, the proportion for APS and NAPS vary. At December 31, 2018, the benchmark for APS was 8 per cent (2017: 9.5 per cent) in return seeking assets and 92 per cent (2017: 90.5 per cent) in liability matching investments; and for NAPS the benchmark was 49 per cent (2017: 65 per cent) in return seeking assets and 51 per cent (2017: 35 per cent) in liability matching investments. Bandwidths are set around these strategic benchmarks that allow for tactical asset allocation decisions, providing parameters for the investment committee and its investment managers to work within.

In addition to this, APS has an insurance contract with Rothesay Life which covers 24 per cent (2017: 24 per cent) of the pensioner liabilities for an agreed list of members. The insurance contract is based on future increases to pensions in line with inflation and will match future obligations on that basis for that part of the scheme. The insurance contract can only be used to pay or fund employee benefits under the scheme. The Trustee of APS also has secured a longevity swap contract with Rothesay Life, which covers an additional 20 per cent (2017: 20 per cent) of the pensioner liabilities for the same members covered by the insurance contract above. The value of the contract is based on the difference between the value of the payments expected to be received under this contract and the pensions payable by the scheme under the contract.

During 2018 the Trustee of APS secured a buy-in contract with Legal & General and at the same time novated the two longevity swaps established in 2017 one with Canada Life and one with Partner Reinsurance which had covered 13 per cent and 8 per cent respectively of the pensioner liabilities. The buy-in contract covers all members in receipt of pension from APS at March 31, 2018, excluding dependent children receiving a pension at that date and members in receipt of equivalent pension (EPB) only benefits, who are alive on October 1, 2018. Benefits coming into payment for retirements after March 31, 2018 are not covered. The contract covers benefits payable from October 1, 2018 onwards. The policy covers approximately 60 per cent of all benefits APS expects to pay out in future. Along with existing insurance products (the asset swap and longevity swaps with Rothesay Life), APS is now 90 per cent protected against all longevity risk and fully protected in relation to all pensions that were already being paid as at March 31, 2018. It is also more than 90 per cent protected against interest rates and inflation (on a Retail Price Index (RPI) basis).

e Present value of scheme liabilities

A reconciliation of the opening and closing balances of the present value of the defined benefit obligations is set out below:

€ million

2018

2017

January 1

28,363

29,193

Current service cost

55

233

Past service (credit)/cost

(778)

2

Interest expense

690

743

Remeasurements - financial assumptions

(997)

530

Remeasurements of experience (gains)/losses

(297)

274

Benefits paid

(1,340)

(1,324)

Employee contributions

128

101

Exchange movements

(441)

(1,389)

December 31

25,383

28,363

The defined benefit obligation comprises €36 million (2017: €28 million) arising from unfunded plans and €25,347 million
(2017: €28,335 million) from plans that are wholly or partly funded.

f Effect of the asset ceiling

A reconciliation of the effect of the asset ceiling used in calculating the IAS 19 irrecoverable surplus in APS and NAPS is set out below:

€ million

2018

2017

January 1

570

580

Interest expense

14

15

Remeasurements1

806

2

Exchange movements

(25)

(27)

December 31

1,365

570

The increase in remeasurements is mainly due to the closure of NAPS to future accrual in 2018. Following this the scheme is now in an IAS 19 accounting surplus, which would be available to the company as a refund upon wind up of the scheme. This refund is restricted due to withholding taxes that would be payable by the Trustee e.g. Actuarial assumptions

The principal assumptions used for the purposes of the actuarial valuations were as follows:

 

2018

2017

Per cent per annum

APS

NAPS

Other schemes

APS

NAPS

Other schemes

Discount rate1

2.65

2.85

1.6 - 4.4

2.45

2.55

1.6 - 3.6

Rate of increase in pensionable pay2

3.20

-

2.5 - 3.7

3.15

3.15

2.5 - 3.6

Rate of increase of pensions in payment3

2.10

2.05

1.5 - 3.8

2.05

2.05

0.0 - 3.5

RPI rate of inflation

3.20

3.15

2.5 - 3.2

3.15

3.15

2.5 - 3.1

CPI rate of inflation

2.10

2.05

1.5 - 3.0

2.05

2.05

1.75 - 3.0

1     Discount rate is determined by reference to the yield on high quality corporate bonds of currency and term consistent with the scheme liabilities.

2     Rate of increase in pensionable pay is assumed to be in line with long-term market inflation expectations. The inflation rate assumptions for NAPS and APS are based on the difference between the yields on index-linked and fixed-interest long-term government bonds.

3     It has been assumed that the rate of increase of pensions in payment will be in line with CPI for APS and NAPS. The Trustee of the Airways Pension Scheme (APS) had proposed an additional discretionary increase above CPI for pensions in payment for the year ended March 31, 2014. British Airways challenged the decision and initiated legal proceedings to determine the legitimacy of the discretionary increase. The High Court issued a judgement in May 2017, which determined that the Trustee had the power to grant discretionary increases, whilst reiterating the Trustee must take into consideration all relevant factors, and ignore irrelevant factors. British Airways appealed the judgement to the Court of Appeal. On July 5, 2018 the Court of Appeal released its judgement, upholding British Airways' appeal, concluding the Trustee did not have the power to introduce a discretionary increase rule. Following the July 2018 judgement, the Trustee has appealed to the Supreme Court. The proposed discretionary increase is not included in the assumptions above.

Rate of increase in healthcare costs is based on medical trend rates of 6.25 per cent grading down to 5.0 per cent over five years (2017: 6.5 per cent to 5.0 per cent over seven years).

In the UK, mortality rates are calculated using the standard SAPS mortality tables produced by the CMI for APS and NAPS. The standard mortality tables were selected based on the actual recent mortality experience of members and were adjusted to allow for future mortality changes. The current longevities underlying the values of the scheme liabilities were as follows:

Mortality assumptions

2018

2017

Life expectancy at age 60 for a:

 

 

- male currently aged 60

28.5

28.4

- male currently aged 40

29.7

29.7

- female currently aged 60

30.3

30.2

- female currently aged 40

32.9

32.8

At December 31, 2018, the weighted-average duration of the defined benefit obligation was 11 years for APS (2017: 12 years) and 19 years for NAPS (2017: 20 years).

In the US, mortality rates were based on the RP-14 mortality tables.

h Sensitivity analysis

Reasonable possible changes at the reporting date to significant actuarial assumptions, holding other assumptions constant, would have affected the present value of scheme liabilities by the amounts shown:

 

Increase/(decrease) in scheme liabilities

€ million

APS

NAPS

Other schemes

Discount rate (decrease of 10 basis points)

11

322

13

Future salary growth (increase of 10 basis points)

-

n/a

7

Future pension growth (increase of 10 basis points)

11

322

1

Future mortality rate (one year increase in life expectancy)

(23)

511

2

Although the analysis does not take into account the full distribution of cash flows expected under the plan, it does provide an approximation of the sensitivity of the assumptions shown.

i Funding

Pension contributions for APS and NAPS were determined by actuarial valuations made at March 31, 2012 and March 31, 2015 respectively, using assumptions and methodologies agreed between the Group and Trustee of each scheme. At the date of the actuarial valuation, the actuarial deficits of APS and NAPS amounted to €932 million and €3,818 million respectively. In order to address the deficits in the schemes, the Group has also committed to the following undiscounted deficit payments:

€ million

APS

NAPS

Within 12 months

61

333

2-5 years

199

1,333

5-10 years

-

1,250

Total expected deficit payments for APS and NAPS

260

2,916

The Group has determined that the minimum funding requirements set out above for APS and NAPS will not be restricted. The present value of the contributions payable is expected to be available as a refund or a reduction in future contributions after they are paid into the plan. This determination has been made independently for each plan, subject to withholding taxes that would be payable by the Trustee.

Deficit payments in respect of local arrangements outside of the UK have been determined in accordance with local practice.

In total, the Group expects to pay €398 million in employer contributions and deficit payments to the two significant post-retirement benefit plans in 2019. This is made up of €61 million and €333 million of deficit payments for APS and NAPS respectively as agreed at the latest triennial valuations. In addition, ongoing employer contributions for 2019 are expected to be €4 million for APS. This excludes any additional deficit contribution that may become due depending on British Airways' cash balance as at March 31, 2019. The Group also expects to pay €278 million in 2019, having provided collateral on certain payments to the Company's pension scheme, APS and NAPS, which at December 31, 2018 amounted to €278 million (2017: €283 million). This amount is payable because the pension schemes are not fully funded on a conservative basis, with a gilts-based discount rate on January 1, 2019 as determined by the scheme actuary.

Until September 2019, if British Airways pays a dividend to IAG higher than 35 per cent of profit after tax it will either provide the scheme with a guarantee for 100 per cent of the amount above 35 per cent or 50 per cent of that amount as an additional cash contribution.

31 Contingent liabilities and guarantees

The Group has certain contingent liabilities which at December 31, 2018 amounted to €88 million (December 31, 2017: €93 million). No material losses are likely to arise from such contingent liabilities. The Group also has the following claims:

Cargo

The European Commission issued a decision in which it found that British Airways, and 10 other airline groups, had engaged in cartel activity in the air cargo sector (Original Decision). British Airways was fined €104 million. Following an appeal, the decision was subsequently partially annulled against British Airways (and annulled in full against the other appealing airlines) (General Counsel Judgement), and the fine was refunded in full. British Airways appealed the partial annulment to the Court of Justice, but that appeal was rejected.

In parallel, the European Commission chose not to appeal the General Counsel Judgement, and instead adopted a new decision in March 2017 (New Decision). The New Decision re-issued fines against all the participating carriers, which match those contained in the Original Decision. British Airways has therefore again been fined €104 million. British Airways has appealed the New Decision to the GC again (as have other carriers).

A large number of claimants have brought proceedings in the English courts to recover damages from British Airways which, relying on the findings in the Commission decisions, they claim arise from the alleged cartel activity. British Airways joined the other airlines alleged to have participated in cartel activity to those proceedings to contribute. A number of those claims were concluded in 2018.

British Airways is also party to similar litigation in a number of other jurisdictions including Germany, the Netherlands and Canada together with a number of other airlines. At present, the outcome of the proceedings is unknown. In each case, the precise effect, if any, of the alleged cartelising activity on the claimants will need to be assessed.

Pensions

The Trustees of the Airways Pension Scheme (APS) had proposed an additional discretionary increase above CPI for pensions in payment for the year to March 31, 2014. British Airways challenged the decision and initiated legal proceedings to determine the legitimacy of the discretionary increase. The outcome of the legal proceedings was issued in May 2017, which concluded the Trustees had the power to grant discretionary increases, whilst reiterating they must take into consideration all relevant factors, and ignore irrelevant factors. The Group appealed the judgement to the Court of Appeal. On July 5, 2018 the Court of Appeal released its judgement, upholding British Airways' appeal, concluding the Trustee did not have the power to introduce a discretionary increase rule. British Airways will not have to reflect the increase in liabilities of €13 million that would have applied had the proposed increase for the 2013/14 scheme year been paid by the Trustee. The Trustee has appealed to the Supreme Court.

Theft of customer data at British Airways

On September 6, 2018 British Airways announced the theft of certain of its customers' personal data. Following an investigation into the theft, British Airways announced on October 25, 2018 that further personal data had potentially been compromised. As at the date of this report, BA was not aware of any confirmed cases of fraud. British Airways continues to cooperate with the investigations of the UK Information Commissioner's Office and other relevant regulators. British Airways has received letters before action from certain UK law firms threatening claims arising from the data breach. Additionally, a putative class action has been filed in the Eastern District of New York, USA. The outcome of the various investigations and litigation, which British Airways will vigorously defend, is uncertain. British Airways holds certain insurance policies.

Guarantees

British Airways has provided collateral on certain payments to its pension schemes, APS and NAPS, which at December 31, 2018 amounted to €278 million (December 31, 2017: €283 million). This amount would be payable in the event that the pension schemes are not fully funded on a conservative basis with a gilts-based discount rate on January 1, 2019 and will be determined by the scheme actuary.

In addition, a guarantee amounting to €256 million (2017: €260 million) was issued by a third party in favour of APS, triggered in the event of British Airways' insolvency.

The Group also has other guarantees and indemnities entered into as part of the normal course of business, which at December 31, 2018 are not expected to result in material losses for the Group.

32 Related party transactions

The following transactions took place with related parties for the financial years to December 31:

€ million

2018

2017

Sales of goods and services

 

 

Sales to associates1

7

7

Sales to significant shareholders2

44

48


 

 

Purchases of goods and services

 

 

Purchases from associates3

55

58

Purchases from significant shareholders2

121

109

 

Receivables from related parties

 

 

Amounts owed by associates4

7

2

Amounts owed by significant shareholders5

3

1


 

 

Payables to related parties

 

 

Amounts owed to associates6

3

3

Amounts owed to significant shareholders5

7

3

1     Sales to associates: Consisted primarily of sales for airline related services to Dunwoody Airline Services (Holding) Limited (Dunwoody) of €5 million
(2017: €6 million) and €1 million (2017: less than €1 million) to Iberia Cards (Sociedad Conjunta para la Emisión y Gestión de Medios de Pago E.F.C., S.A.) and Serpista, S.A.

2     Sales to and purchases from significant shareholders: Related to interline services and wet leases with Qatar Airways.

3     Purchases from associates: Mainly included €35 million of airport auxiliary services purchased from Multiservicios Aeroportuarios, S.A. (2017: €35 million), €6 million of handling services provided by Dunwoody (2017: €13 million) and €13 million of maintenance services received from Serpista, S.L. (2017: €9 million).

4     Amounts owed by associates: For airline related services rendered, that included balances with Dunwoody of €5 million (2017: €1 million) and €2 million of services provided to Multiservicios Aeroportuarios, S.A., Viajes AME, S.A., Iberia Cards (Sociedad Conjunta para la Emisión y Gestión de Medios de Pago E.F.C., S.A.) and Empresa Hispano Cubana de Mantenimiento de Aeronaves, Ibeca, S.A. (2017: €1m for Multiservicios Aeroportuarios, S.A., Serpista, S.A. and Empresa Hispano Cubana de Mantenimiento de Aeronaves, Ibeca, S.A.).

5     Amounts owed by and to significant shareholders: Related to Qatar Airways.

6     Amounts owed to associates: Consisted primarily of less than €1 million due to Dunwoody (2017: €1 million), €3 million to Serpista, S.A. (2017: €2 million) and less than €1 million to Multiservicios Aeroportuarios, S.A. (2017: less than €1 million).

During the year to December 31, 2018 British Airways met certain costs of administering its retirement benefit plans, including the provision of support services to the Trustees. Costs borne on behalf of the retirement benefit plans amounted to €9.5 million (2017: €7 million) in relation to the costs of the Pension Protection Fund levy.

The Group has transactions with related parties that are conducted in the normal course of the airline business, which include the provision of airline and related services. All such transactions are carried out on an arm's length basis.

For the year to December 31, 2018, the Group has not made any provision for doubtful debts arising relating to amounts owed by related parties (2017: nil).

Significant shareholders

In this instance, significant shareholders are those parties who have the power to participate in the financial and operating policy decisions of the Group, as a result of their shareholdings in the Group, but who do not have control over these policies.

At December 31, 2018 the Group had cash deposit balances with shareholders holding a participation of between 3 to 5 per cent, of €98 million (2017: €90 million).

Board of Directors and Management Committee remuneration

Compensation received by the Group's Board of Directors and Management Committee, in 2018 and 2017 is as follows:

 

Year to December 31

 

€ million

2018

2017

 

Base salary, fees and benefits

 

 

 

Board of Directors

 

 

 

Short-term benefits (cash)

5

6

Share based payments

2

3

Post employment and termination benefits

-

-

Management Committee

 

 

Short-term benefits (cash)

10

10

Share based payments

5

7

Post employment and termination benefits

-

-

At December 31, 2018 the Board of Directors includes remuneration for two Executive Directors (December 31, 2017: two Executive Directors). The Management Committee includes remuneration for ten members (December 31, 2017: nine members).

The Company provides life insurance for all executive directors and the Management Committee. For the year to December 31, 2018 the Company's obligation was €58,000(2017: €38,000).

At December 31, 2018 the transfer value of accrued pensions covered under defined benefit pension obligation schemes, relating to the current members of the Management Committee totalled €4 million (2017 : €4 million).

No loan or credit transactions were outstanding with Directors or offices of the Group at December 31, 2018 (2017: nil).

33 Changes to accounting policies

The Group has adopted IFRS 15 'Revenue from contracts with customers' from January 1, 2018. The standard establishes a five-step model that applies to revenue arising from contracts with customers. Revenue is recognised at an amount that reflects the consideration to which an entity expects to be entitled in exchange for goods and services and at a point when the performance obligations associated with these goods and services have been satisfied.

The Group has identified the following changes to revenue recognition on adoption of the standard:

•   Loyalty revenue - revenue associated with performance obligations arising on the sale of loyalty points, including revenue allocated to brand and marketing services and revenue allocated to Avios points, has been determined based on the relative stand-alone selling price of each performance obligation. Revenue associated with brand and marketing services is recognised as the points are issued. Revenue allocated to the Avios points is deferred and recognised when the points are redeemed. The impact of assessing the stand-alone selling prices of the individual performance obligations has resulted in a greater portion of revenue being deferred on issuance, because the stand-alone selling price of the points was higher than the fair value applied under IFRIC 13 'Customer loyalty programmes'.

On implementation of IFRS 15, the Group assessed all contracts associated with the loyalty programmes at the date of initial application. This resulted in an increase in the number of points deferred in respect of incomplete contracts and which are expected to be redeemed in the future.

The Group also changed the way that costs associated with the redemption of Avios points with third parties are presented. The revenue arising from these transactions is presented net of the related costs as IAG's obligation is to arrange for goods and services to be provided by third party suppliers.

•   Passenger revenue - revenue associated with ancillary services that was previously recognised when paid, such as administration fees, is deferred to align with the recognition of revenue associated with the related travel.

•   Cargo revenue - interline cargo revenue is presented gross rather than net of related costs as IAG is considered to have a performance obligation to provide cargo services to its customers, rather than an obligation to arrange cargo services to be provided by third parties.

•   Other revenue - revenue associated with maintenance activities and holiday revenue with performance obligations that are fulfilled over time, is recognised over the performance obligation period using a methodology that reflects the activity undertaken in order to satisfy the obligation.

The Group has applied the standard on a fully retrospective basis and restated prior year comparatives on adoption of IFRS 15. Practical expedients have not been used. The adjustment to opening retained earnings at January 1, 2017 arising from the changes to loyalty revenue recognition amounted to a charge of €403 million. Deferred revenue on ticket sales increased by €497 million and the net tax asset increased by €94 million. Other changes to revenue recognition resulted in a charge to retained earnings at January 1, 2017 of €27 million.

The Group has adopted IFRS 9 'Financial Instruments' from January 1, 2018. The standard amends the classification and measurement models for financial assets and adds new requirements to address the impairment of financial assets. It also introduces a new hedge accounting model to more closely align hedge accounting with risk management strategy and objectives. The Group has identified the following changes to the classification and measurement of financial assets and accounting for derivative instruments used for hedging.

•   Equity investments, previously classified as available-for-sale, are measured at fair value through Other comprehensive income, with no recycling of gains and losses. In addition, the Group has adopted a new impairment model for trade receivables and other financial assets, with no material adjustment to existing provisions. The Group will continue to recognise most financial assets at amortised cost as the contractual cash flows associated with these assets are solely payments of principal and interest.

•   The Group continues to undertake hedging activity in line with its financial risk management objectives and policies. Movements in the time value of options are now classified as cost of hedging and recognised in Other comprehensive income, with prior year comparatives restated. At January 1, 2017 there was a reclassification of €38 million of post-tax gains from retained earnings to unrealised net gains in Other reserves to reflect the reclassification of gains and losses associated with the time value of options. Movements in the time value of options recognised in Other comprehensive income in 2017 are set out in note 29.

Impact on financial statements

The following tables summarise the impact of adopting IFRS 15 and IFRS 9 on the Consolidated income statement for the 12 months to December 31, 2017 and the Consolidated balance sheet as at December 31, 2017 and January 1, 2017.

Consolidated income statement (extract for the 12 months to December 31, 2017)

 

 

IFRS 15

 

 

€ million

Previously
reported

Loyalty revenue

Other

IFRS 9
adjustments

Restated

Passenger revenue

20,245

51

(11)

-

20,285

Cargo revenue

1,084

-

48

-

1,132

Other revenue

1,643

(181)

1

-

1,463

Total revenue

22,972

(130)

38

-

22,880

Handling, catering and other operating costs

2,714

(69)

42

-

2,687

Other expenditure on operations

17,531

-

-

-

17,531

Total expenditure on operations

20,245

(69)

42

-

20,218

Operating profit

2,727

(61)

(4)

-

2,662


 

 

 

 


Unrealised (losses)/gains on derivatives not qualifying for hedge accounting

(14)

-

-

42

28

Net currency retranslation credits

27

-

-

11

38

Other non-operating items

(247)

-

-

-

(247)

Profit before tax

2,493

(61)

(4)

53

2,481

Tax

(472)

11

1

(12)

(472)

Profit after tax for the year

2,021

(50)

(3)

41

2,009

Basic earnings per share (€ cents)

95.8

(2.5)

-

1.9

95.2

Diluted earnings per share (€ cents)

92.6

(2.4)

-

1.8

92.0

 

Consolidated balance sheet (extract as at December 31, 2017)

 

 

IFRS 15

 

€ million

Previously
reported

Loyalty revenue

Other

Restated

Non-current assets

 

 

 

 

Deferred tax assets

521

-

2

523

Other non-current assets

16,517

-

-

16,517


17,038

-

2

17,040

Current assets

 

 

 

 

Trade receivables

1,494

-

(31)

1,463

Other current assets

8,729

-

-

8,729


10,223

-

(31)

10,192

Total assets

27,261

-

(29)

27,232





 

Total equity

7,396

(432)

(31)

6,933


 

 

 

 

Non-current liabilities

 

 

 

 

Deferred tax liability

531

-

(5)

526

Other non-current liabilities

9,642

-

-

9,642


10,173

-

(5)

10,168

Current liabilities

 

 

 

 

Trade and other payables

3,766

-

(43)

3,723

Deferred revenue on ticket sales

4,159

533

50

4,742

Current tax payable

179

(101)

-

78

Other current liabilities

1,588

-

-

1,588


9,692

432

7

10,131

Total liabilities

19,865

432

2

20,299

Total equity and liabilities

27,261

-

(29)

27,232

 

Consolidated balance sheet (extract as at January 1, 2017)

 

 

IFRS 15

 

€ million

Previously
reported

Loyalty revenue

Other

Restated

Non-current assets

 

 

 

 

Deferred tax assets

526

33

2

561

Other non-current assets

17,062

-

-

17,062


17,588

33

2

17,623

Current assets

 

 

 

 

Trade receivables

1,405

-

(35)

1,370

Other current assets

8,380

-

-

8,380

 

9,785

-

(35)

9,750

Total assets

27,373

33

(33)

27,373

 

 

 

 

 

Total equity

5,664

(403)

(27)

5,234

 

 

 

 

 

Non-current liabilities

 

 

 

 

Deferred tax liability

176

(61)

(5)

110

Other non-current liabilities

12,197

-

-

12,197


12,373

(61)

(5)

12,307

Current liabilities

 

 

 

 

Trade and other payables

3,305

-

(39)

3,266

Deferred revenue on ticket sales

4,145

497

38

4,680

Other current liabilities

1,886

-

-

1,886


9,336

497

(1)

9,832

Total liabilities

21,709

436

(6)

22,139

Total equity and liabilities

27,373

33

(33)

27,373

The Group has not adopted any other standards, amendments or interpretations in the 12 months to December 31, 2018 that have had a significant change to its financial performance or position.

IFRS 16 'Leases' will be adopted by the Group from January 1, 2019. The new standard eliminates the classification of leases as either operating leases or finance leases and introduces a single lessee accounting model. The Group has a number of operating leases for assets including aircraft, property and other equipment.

The main changes arising on the adoption of IFRS 16 will be as follows:

1. Interest-bearing borrowings and non-current assets will increase on implementation of the standard as obligations to make future payments under leases currently classified as operating leases will be recognised on the Balance sheet, along with the related 'right-of-use' (ROU) asset. The Group has opted to use the practical expedients in respect of leases of less than 12 months duration and leases for low value items and excluded them from the scope of IFRS 16. Rental payments associated with these leases will be recognised in the Income statement on a straight-line basis over the life of the lease.

2. There will be a reduction in expenditure on operations and an increase in finance costs as operating lease costs are replaced with depreciation and lease interest expense.

3. The adoption of IFRS 16 will require the Group to make a number of judgements, estimates and assumptions. These include:

The approach to be adopted on transition. The Group will use the modified retrospective transition approach. Lease liabilities will be determined based on the appropriate incremental borrowing rates and rates of exchange at the date of transition (January 1, 2019). ROU assets in respect of aircraft will be measured at the appropriate incremental borrowing rates at the date of transition and rates of exchange at the commencement of each lease, and will be depreciated from the lease commencement date to the date of transition. Other ROU assets will be measured based on the related lease liability. IFRS 16 does not allow comparative information to be restated if the modified retrospective transition approach is used.

The estimated lease term. The term of each lease will be based on the original lease term unless management is 'reasonably certain' to exercise options to extend the lease. Further information used to determine the appropriate lease term includes fleet plans which underpin approved business plans, and historic experience regarding extension options.

The discount rate used to determine the lease liability. The rates used on transition to discount future lease payments are the Group's incremental borrowing rates. These rates have been calculated for each airline, reflecting the underlying lease terms and based on observable inputs. The risk-free rate component has been based on LIBOR rates available in the same currency and over the same term as the lease and has been adjusted for credit risk. For future lease obligations, the Group is proposing to use the interest rate implicit in the lease.

Terminal arrangements. The Group has reviewed its arrangements at airport terminals to determine whether any agreements previously considered to be service agreements should be classified as leases. No additional leases have been identified following this review.

Restoration obligations. The Group has identified certain obligations associated with the maintenance condition of its aircraft on redelivery to the lessor, such as the requirement to complete a final airframe check, repaint the aircraft and reconfigure the cabin. These have been recognised as part of the ROU asset on transition. Judgement has been used to identify the appropriate obligations and estimation has been used (based observable data) to measure them. Other maintenance obligations associated with these assets, comprising obligations that arise as the aircraft is utilised, such as engine overhauls and periodic airframe checks, will continue to be recognised as a maintenance expense over the lease term.

4. For future reporting periods after adoption, foreign exchange movements on lease obligations, which are predominantly denominated in US dollars, will be remeasured at each balance sheet date, however the ROU asset will be recognised at the historic exchange rate. This will create volatility in the Income statement. The Group intends to manage this volatility as part of its risk management strategy.

The Group expects that the following assets and liabilities will be recognised on the Consolidated balance sheet at January 1, 2019 on adoption of IFRS 16 (rounded to the nearest €5 million):

Consolidated balance sheet (extract as at January 1, 2019)

€ Million

As
reported

Preliminary
IFRS 16 adjustments

Restated

Non-current assets

 

 

 

Property, plant and equipment

 

 

 

Fleet

10,790

3,730

14,520

Property and equipment

1,647

755

2,402

Deferred tax assets

536

130

666

Other non-current assets

4,968

-

4,968


17,941

4,615

22,556

Current assets

 

 

 

Other current assets

10,093

(35)

10,058


10,093

(35)

10,058

Total assets

28,034

4,580

32,614




 

Total equity

6,720

(550)

6,170


 

 

 

Non-current liabilities

 

 

 

Interest-bearing long-term borrowings

6,633

4,315

10,948

Deferred tax liability

453

(40)

413

Provisions for liabilities and charges

2,268

120

2,388

Other non-current liabilities

910

(125)

785


10,264

4,270

14,534

Current liabilities

 

 

 

Current portion of long term borrowings

876

880

1,756

Other current liabilities

10,174

(20)

10,154


11,050

860

11,910

Total liabilities

21,314

5,130

26,444

Total equity and liabilities

28,034

4,580

32,614

 

Group Investments

Subsidiaries

British Airways

Name and address

Principal activity

Country of Incorporation

Percentage of equity owned

Avios Group (AGL) Limited *
Astral Towers, Betts Way, London Road, Crawley, West Sussex, RH10 9XY

Airline marketing

England

100%

BA and AA Holdings Limited *
Waterside, PO Box 365, Harmondsworth, UB7 0GB

Holding company

England

100%

BA Call Centre India Private Limited (callBA)
F-42, East of Kailash, New Delhi, 110065

India

100%

BA Cityflyer Limited *
Waterside, PO Box 365, Harmondsworth, UB7 0GB

Airline operations

England

100%

BA European Limited
Waterside, PO Box 365, Harmondsworth, UB7 0GB

England

100%

BA Heathcare Trust Limited
Waterside, PO Box 365, Harmondsworth, UB7 0GB

England

100%

BA Number One Limited
Waterside, PO Box 365, Harmondsworth, UB7 0GB

England

100%

BA Number Two Limited
IFC 5, St Helier, Jersey, JE1 1ST

Jersey

100%

Bealine Plc
Waterside, PO Box 365, Harmondsworth, UB7 0GB

England

100%

BritAir Holdings Limited *
Waterside, PO Box 365, Harmondsworth, UB7 0GB

Holding company

England

100%

British Airways (BA) Limited
Waterside, PO Box 365, Harmondsworth, UB7 0GB

England

100%

British Airways 777 Leasing Limited *
Waterside, PO Box 365, Harmondsworth, UB7 0GB

Aircraft leasing

England

100%

British Airways Associated Companies Limited
Waterside, PO Box 365, Harmondsworth, UB7 0GB

England

100%

British Airways Avionic Engineering Limited *
Waterside, PO Box 365, Harmondsworth, UB7 0GB

Aircraft maintenance

England

100%

British Airways Capital Limited
Queensway House, Hilgrove Street, St Helier, JE1 1ES

Jersey

100%

British Airways E-Jets Leasing Limited *
Canon's Court, 22 Victoria Street, Hamilton, HM 12

Aircraft financing

Bermuda

100%

British Airways Holdings BV
Strawinskylaan 3105, Atrium, Amsterdam, 1077ZX

Netherlands

100%

British Airways Holdings Limited *
IFC 5, St Helier, Jersey, JE1 1ST

Holding company

Jersey

100%

British Airways Holidays Limited *
Waterside, PO Box 365, Harmondsworth, UB7 0GB

Package holidays

England

100%

British Airways Interior Engineering Limited *
Waterside, PO Box 365, Harmondsworth, UB7 0GB

Aircraft maintenance

England

100%

British Airways Leasing Limited *
Waterside, PO Box 365, Harmondsworth, UB7 0GB

Aircraft financing

England

100%

British Airways Maintenance Cardiff Limited *
Waterside, PO Box 365, Harmondsworth, UB7 0GB

Aircraft maintenance

England

100%

British Airways Pension Trustees (No 2) Limited
Waterside, PO Box 365, Harmondsworth, UB7 0GB

England

100%

British Mediterranean Airways Limited
Waterside, PO Box 365, Harmondsworth, UB7 0GB

England

99%

British Midland Airways Limited
Waterside, PO Box 365, Harmondsworth, UB7 0GB

England

100%

British Midland Limited
Waterside, PO Box 365, Harmondsworth, UB7 0GB

England

100%

Diamond Insurance Company Limited
1st Floor, Rose House, 51-59 Circular Road, Douglas, IM1 1RE

Isle of Man

100%

Flyline Tele Sales & Services GmbH
Hermann Koehl-Strasse 3, Bremen, 28199

Germany

100%

Name and address

Principal activity

Country of Incorporation

Percentage of equity owned

Gatwick Ground Services Limited
Waterside, PO Box 365, Harmondsworth, UB7 0GB

England

100%

Illiad Inc
Suite 1300, 1105 North Market Street, PO Box 8985,
Wilmington, Delaware, 19899

USA

100%

Overseas Air Travel Limited
Waterside, PO Box 365, Harmondsworth, UB7 0GB

 

England

100%

Speedbird Insurance Company Limited *
Canon's Court, 22 Victoria Street, Hamilton, HM 12

Insurance

Bermuda